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A&P - Pregnancy, Growth, and Development
Terms in this set (62)
prenatal period and postnatal period
the two periods of life phases
period that begins at fertilization and ends at birth
period that begins at birth and ends at death
the presence of a developing offspring in the uterus
Pregnancy consists of three 3-month periods called:
_________ results from fertilization.
the union of an egg cell and a sperm cell
Prior to fertilization, a female ovulates an ________ which enters a uterine tube.
During sexual intercourse, the male deposits _____ containing sperm in the vagina near the cervix.
uterus and uterine tube
When the sperm cells reach the egg cell, they must move upward through the:
_____________ in the semen stimulate the lashing of sperm tails and muscular contractions of the uterus and uterine tube which help the sperm move.
Sperm cells reach the upper portion of the uterine tube withing how long after sexual intercourse?
Though many sperm cells may reach an egg cell, how many sperm cells does it take to fertilize an egg cell?
What process triggers lysosome-like vessicles just beneath an egg cell membrane to release enzymes that harder the zona pellucida around the egg cell, therefore reducing the chances of another sperm cell's penetration?
the first cell of the future offspring
the two new cells that the zygote gives rise to after it undergoes mitosis 30 hours after forming
the early, rapid cell division where cells have little time to grow and each division yields smaller cells
about the time of implantation where certain cells on the inner surface of the blastocyst organize into a group that will give rise to the offspring
term used for an offspring until the end of the 8th week when basic structural form of the human body is recognizable
term used for the offspring after the 8th week and until birth
Rudiments of all organs are present by the end of the:
Organs and other structures enlarge and specialize during the:
cells surrounding the embryo along with cells of the edometrium form this complex vascular structure that is attached to the uterine wall
exchanges nutrients, gases, and wastes between the maternal blood and the blood of the embryo and secretes hormones
functions of the placenta
human chorionic gonadotropin
a hormone that normally prevents pregnancy loss; simular in function to the luteinizing hormone (LH); maintains the corpus luteum
stimulates the uterine wall to grow and develop
develop enough to survive the first trimester
Secretion of hCG continues at high levels for about two months then declines by the end of four months; this allows the fetus to:
placental lactogen, placental estrogen, and progesterone
three hormones secreted by the placenta that stimulate breast development and prepare the mammary glands for milk secretion
extends from the end of the 2nd week to the 8th week of prenatal development
the placenta forms, the main internal organs develop, and the major external body structures appear
three things that happen during the embryonic stage
ectoderm and endoderm
Early in the embryonic stage, the cells of the inner cell mass organize into a flattened disk with two distinct layers:
primary germ layers
where all organs form from three cell layers
ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
the three primary germ layers
the term for the 2-week embryo with its 3 primary germ layers
slender projections that grow out from the trophoblast into the surrounding endometrium as the embryo continues to implant in the uterus
the former trophoblast covered in whole by chronic villi until the end of the 8th week
another membrane that develops around the embryo during the 2nd week while the placenta forms
A margin attaches around the edge of the embryonic disk and ______________ fills the spaces between the amnion and the embryonic disk.
contains three blood vessels that transport blood between the embryo and the placenta
two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein
the three blood vessels in the umbilical cord
forms during the 2nd week; attaches to the underside of the embryonic disk; forms blood cells in the early stages of development and gives rise to the cells that will later become sex cells
form during the 3rd week as a tube extending from the early yolk sac into the connecting stalk of the embryo; forms blood cells and gives rise to the umbilical arteries and vein
begins at the end of the 8th week and lasts until birth; growth is rapid and body proportions change considerably
body length; head
During the 3rd month, growth in ___________ accelerates but the ____ growth slows.
the digestive tract and respiratory system are the last to mature
Why do premature infants often have difficulty digesting milk and breathing?
upside down and toward the cervix
How is the fetus positioned at the end of the 9th month?
How long is the average pregnancy from the beginning to the end of the 9th month?
bypasses the liver and extends a short distance to join the inferior vena cava to the placenta
Much of the blood in the inferior vena cava that enters the fetal right atrium is shunted directly to the left atrium through an opening in the atrial septum called the:
Most of the blood in the pulmonary trunk bypasses the lung by entering a fetal vessel called the:
Pregnancy usually continues for ________ from conception.
Pregnancy ends ________ after the woman's last menstrual cycle.
Pregnancy ends with the:
stimulates powerful uterine contractions; combined with greater excitability of the myometrium due to the decline in progesterone secretion, this helps labor in its later stages
rhythmic, muscular contractions
During labor, ____________________________ begin at the top of the uterus and extend down its length. This action stretches the cervix which elicits a reflex that stimulates even stronger labor contractions.
Following birth of the fetus, the ________ detaches from the uterine wall and uterine contractions expel it through the birth canal.
placental estrogen and progesterone
two hormones that stimulate further development of the mammary glands during pregnancy
Hormonal activity doubles ______ size during pregnancy, and the mammary glands become capable of secreting ____.
begins abruptly at birth and extends to the end of the first four weeks (28 days) of life
occuring after birth
study of substances that cause abnormal development and congenital malformations
each third of the total period of pregnancy
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