8th Grade CST Review

STUDY
PLAY
The First Great Awakening
(1720s-1740) a revival of religious feeling and belief in the American colonies; it encouraged ideas of independence and freedom
The Second Great Awakening
a revival of religious feeling and belief in the 1820s and 1830s. It encourage people to perform "good works" in order to improve and reform American society
Declaration of Independence
1776 document stating that the 13 English colonies were a free and independent nation
U.S. Constitution
The document that set up our current framework for government; written in 1787 and ratified in 1788
The Mayflower Compact (1620)
a document written by the Pilgrims establishing themselves as a political society and setting guidelines for self-government
federalism
U.S. system of government that balances (shares) power between the national government and state governments
Industrial Revolution
a period of rapid growth in using machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s (1750s-1760s) in Great Britain
telegraph
a device that could send information over wires very quickly and across great distances
strike
a refusal to work until employers meet demands
unions
groups of workers that tried to their improve pay and working conditions, usually through use of strikes or petitions
War of 1812
a war fought between the U.S. and Great Britain that lasted from 1812 to 1815.
cash crop
a farm crop grown to be sold or traded rather than used by the farm family
tobacco
a plant whose leaves are dried and turned into material for smoking or chewing; the first major cash crop in the South of the U.S.
Nat Turner's Rebellion
although it was unsuccessful, it was the most violent slave rebellion in American history; took place in 1831 and was led by a slave from Southampton County, Virginia; it prompted many states to strengthen their slave codes
cotton gin
a machine that removes seeds from short staple cotton, it was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793 and revolutionized the cotton industry, helping to launch the cotton boom in the South; increased the number of slaves needed for labor in the Deep South
urban
in, relating to, or characteristic of a city or town
immigrant
a person who comes to live permanently in a foreign country
transcendentalism
a social movement that developed in New England around 1836; members believed that people could transcend, or rise above, material things in life and that people should follow their own beliefs and think for themselves; Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, and Henry David Thoreau were all important figures in this movement
Horace Mann
an advocate for public education, a graduate of Brown University and a leader of the common-school movement; in 1837, he became Massachusetts's first secretary of education
Dorothea Dix
a female reformer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill; beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada
William Lloyd Garrison
an American abolitionist, journalist, and women's rights advocate; he wanted to end slavery immediately; he was the editor and creator of the abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator" and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society
abolitionist
a person who wants to abolish (get rid of) slavery
Sarah and Angelina Grimké
two sisters, born in South Carolina to a wealthy family of slave owners; after they grow up, they become Quakers, join the abolitionist movement, and later fight for women's rights
Frederick Douglass
one of the most important African American figures in the abolitionist movement; he taught himself to read and write when he was a boy (even though there was a law against it) and escaped from slavery when he was 20; he created an abolitionist newspaper called "North Star" and wrote an autobiography called "Narrative in the Life of Frederick Douglass" in which he wrote about the injustices of slavery
Seneca Falls Convention
the first public meeting about women's rights in the U.S.; it was organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1848; the participants created the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Declaration of Sentiments
a document in favor of women's rights written by the women and men who attended the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848; the language used in the document was modeled after the language in the Declaration of Independence
Susan B. Anthony
leader of woman suffrage movement, who helped to define the movement's goals and beliefs and to lead its actions
Lucretia Mott
an American Quaker, abolitionist, and women's rights activist, she helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
an abolitionist and early leader in the women's rights movement; she attended the World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London but was not allowed to participate; she helped found the National Woman Suffrage Association and helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention along with Lucretia Mott
women's rights movement
the organized effort to improve political, legal, and economic status of women in American society; it was largely inspired by women's frustration with their limited participation rights in the abolitionist movement
Underground Railroad
a network of people who helped thousands of enslaved people escape to free states in the North of the U.S, and to and Canada, by providing transportation and hiding places
Mississippi River
the largest river system in the U.S., it stretches from Minnesota in the North, to the Gulf of Mexico in the South; many routes of the Underground Railroad traveled along this river
sectionalism
devotion to the interests of one region instead of to the country as a whole
popular sovereignty
principle that would allow voters in a particular territory to vote on what policies they want to exist in that territory (for example, whether or not they want slavery to be legal)
Fugitive Slave Act
a law put into practice in September of 1850, that made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed officials to arrest slaves in free states as well as slave states; slaves captured under the law were not allowed to testify for themselves and were not allowed to have a trial with a jury
Uncle Tom's Cabin
a powerful antislavery novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Beecher Stowe
person who wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin; Abraham Lincoln once said to her, "So, you're the little lady who made this big war"
Republican Party
This political party was started in 1854 by Abraham Lincoln. It wanted to prevent the spread of slavery into the territories.
Compromise of 1850
a plan, developed by Senator Henry Clay, that was meant to help the U.S. maintain peace, while allowing California to be admitted as a free state
secede (secession)
(verb) to withdraw, or formally break away from
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 Compromise reached between slave and non-slave states. Popular sovereignty would determine if slavery was going to be allowed or not.
bleeding Kansas
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
John Brown
a violent abolitionist who led the Pottawatomie Massacre in Kansas, believing that God had told him to "fight fire with fire..and strike terror in the hearts of pro-slavery people;" he was hanged in 1859 after leading an unsuccessful raid of an arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia
Dred Scott Decision
an 1857 Supreme Court case that finished with Chief Justice Roger B. Tany's ruling that African Americans, whether free or slave, were not citizens of the U.S.; that living in a free state or territory, even for many years, did not free slaves; and that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional - meaning that slavery should be allowed in all states, so Congress did NOT have the power to ban slavery
John Brown's Raid
in 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry in an unorganized effort to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. Although Brown was determined, the raid failed and Brown was captured and hanged.
The Confederate States of America
the name given to the new nation and government when delegates from the states of South Carolina, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia seceded from the Union in 1861; they elected Jefferson Davis as their President
Mexican Cession
land given to the U.S. as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) after the Mexican American War. The U.S. paid $15 million for the land
Fort Sumter
a federal outpost in Charleston, South Carolina; when it was attacked by Confederates on April 12, 1861, Lincoln declared war on the "rebel" southern states and the Civil War began
Reconstruction
the 12-year process (1865-1877) of reuniting the U.S. by readmitting the former Confederate states to the Union and helping those states to rebuild without slavery; it was started by Abraham Lincoln because he wanted to readmit the former Confederate states to the Union as quickly and as painlessly as possible
Thirteenth (13th) Amendment
a constitutional amendment ratified in 1865 that abolished slavery [made slavery illegal] throughout the United States
Freedmen's Bureau
an agency established by Congress to help poor southerners, both black and white - especially freedpeople (former slaves), poor whites and white refugees; the agency built schools, provided legal aid to former slaves, provided medical care, etc.
John Wilkes Booth
an American theater actor who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865, because he strongly opposed the abolition of slavery in the U.S. and Lincoln's other views on extending more civil rights to African Americans
Abraham Lincoln
the Republican 16th President of the United States; wanted to maintain the unity of the country; his election led to the secession of southern states, which quickly led to the Civil War; issued the Emancipation Proclamation and supported the 13th amendment (although it would not become law until after his death); shot in the head by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theatre
Radical Republicans
a small group (within Republican party) of men who thought that the federal government should be very tough with the South during Reconstruction to force it to change; they wanted more protection for freedmen and more guarantees that Confederate nationalism was completely eliminated
veto
(noun) the rejection of a decision or proposal made by law-makers
Fourteenth (14th) Amendment
a constitutional amendment ratified in 1868 that gave full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians
impeachment
the process used by a legislative body [a group of people who make laws] to bring charges of wrongdoing against a public official
cabinet officials
advisors to the President - for example, the Secretary of War, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Agriculture, Attorney General, etc.
Fifteenth (15th) Amendment
a constitutional amendment ratified in 1870 that gave African American men the right to vote
Ku Klux Klan
a secret society formed in Tennessee in 1866 by a group of people opposed to the increase in government support for civil rights for African Americans; they used violence and terror to prevent African Americans from voting
Jim Crow laws
laws that enforced racial segregation in the U.S. from 1876 to 1965
Plessy v. Ferguson
an 1896 Supreme Court Case in which Chief Justice Melville Fuller declared that state laws that enforced racial segregation (such as the Jim Crow laws) were constitutional if "separate but equal" facilities were provided for both races
sharecropping
a system of farming in which landowners provided land, tool and supplies to grow crops and workers (usually freedpeople and poor whites) provided the labor; since the workers had to give most of the crops to the landowners, this system left many freedpeople and poor whites with a lot of debt
Ulysses S. Grant
he fought in the Mexican-American War, was the commander of the Union Army during the Civil War, was in command of the U.S. Army during Reconstruction and in 1868, he became the 18th president of the United States
Harriet Tubman
a former slave who became the most important leader of the Underground Railroad, leading escaped slaves to freedom in the North
judicial review
the Supreme Court's power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional; this principle was established by the U.S. Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison in 1803
Great Compromise (1787)
A compromise between states with small and large populations. It was established that there would be 2 houses in Congress, the House was based on the population and the Senate was 2 senators from each state.
Homestead Act (1862)
a law passed by Congress to encourage settlement in the West by giving government-owned land to small farmers
imperialism
the practice of extending a nation's power by gaining territories for a colonial empire
Indian Removal Act (1830)
a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River; relocated thousands of Cherokee Indians from Georgia to Indian Territory in Oklahoma; made that land available for white miners (gold was discovered there) and farmers (very fertile land)
isolationism
a national policy of avoiding involvement in other countries' affairs
Jamestown
the first colony in America; set up in 1607 along the James River in Virginia
Kitchen Cabinet
President Andrew Jackson's group of informal advisors; so called because they often met in the White House kitchen
Knights of Labor
secret society that became the first truly national labor union in the United States
laissez-faire
the theory that the economy works best with as few regulations as possible
Lewis and Clark expedition
an expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark that began in 1804 to explore the land in the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
(1803) the purchase of French land between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains that doubled the size of the United States
Loyalists
colonists who sided with Britain in the American Revolution
Magna Carta
(1215) a charter that King John of England was forced to sign; it made the king obey the same laws as the citizens of his kingdom; This idea of limiting the power of the king influenced the development of American government
Middle Passage
a voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
Missouri Compromise (1820)
an agreement dealing with states' rights that was proposed by Henry Clay (the Great Compromiser!); allowed Missouri to enter the U.S. as a slave state, Maine to enter as a free state, AND outlawed slavery in any territories or states north of the 36°30' latitude
Reconstruction Amendments
13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution that were intended to solve problems relating to civil rights
Gettysburg Address
(1863) a speech given by Abraham Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg, in which he praised the bravery of Union soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil War; supported the ideals of self-government and human rights
Gadsden Purchase
(1853) U.S. purchase of land from Mexico that included the southern parts of present-day Arizona and New Mexico; it was purchased to build a railroad through the land
Alien and Sedition Acts
(1798) laws passed by a Federalist-dominated Congress aimed at protecting the government from treasonous ideas, actions, and people
States' rights
the right of states to limit the power of the federal government
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Legislative Branch
the branch of government that makes the laws.
Executive Branch
the branch of government, headed by the president, that carries out the nation's laws and policies
Judicial Branch
the branch of government, including the federal court system, that interprets the nation's laws
Manifest Destiny
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
First Amendment
an amendment to the Constitution of the United States guaranteeing the right of free expression
Second Amendment
the right to bear (own) arms; a controversial amendment because people disagree over the initial intent of the farmers of the Constitution
Fourth Amendment
protects you from unreasonable search and seizure of your home and property
Fifth Amendment
the constitutional amendment designed to protect the rights of persons accused of crimes, including protection against double jeopardy, self-incrimination, and punishment without the due process of law.
Sixth Amendment
The right to a speedy trial (and attorney)
Eighth Amendment
protection against excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment
Ninth Amendment
states that people's rights are not limited to just those listed in the Constitution.
Tenth Amendment
Amendment stating that the powers not delegated to the federal gov. are reserved to the states
Progressive Era
time at the turn of the 20th century in which groups sought to reform America economically, socially, and politically
Age of Reform
1820s-1850s period where americans felt urge to reform their behavior and society. Suffrage Movement, Women's Rights Movement, Abolition Movement, Common-School Movement,
Suffrage Movement
movement dedicated to achieving women's right to vote
capitalism
an economic system in which individuals and private businesses run most industries
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.
Click to see the original works with their full license.