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A distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes and individual


a characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, or feeling


a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts

psychodynamic theories

theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual


in psychoanalysis, the part of personality containing inherited psychic energy, particularly aggressive/sexual instincts


the psychic energy that fuels the life or sexual instincts of the id.


the part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-control


in psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards.

defense mechanisms

methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness

psychosexual stages

in Freud;s theory, the idea that sexual energy takes different forms as the child matures; the stages are oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital

Oedipus complex

doin your mom brah

collective unconscious

the universal memories and experiences of humankind, represented in the symbols, stories, etc that occur across all cultures

object-relations school

a psychodynamic approach that emphasizes the importance of the infant's first two years of life and the baby's formative relationships, especially with the mother

objective tests (inventories)

standardized questionnaires requiring written responses; they typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves.

factor analysis

a statistical method for analyzing the intercorrelations among various measures or test scores; clusters of measures or scores that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait


functional units of heredity; composed of DNA and specify structure of proteins


physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways; they are present in infancy and are assumed to be innate.


statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group

behavioral genetics

an interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of individual differences in behavior and personality

social-cognitive learning theory

a major contemporary learning view of personality, which holds that personality traits result from a person's learning history and his or her expectations, beliefs, perceptions of events, and other cognitions

reciprocal determinism

in social-cognitive theories, the two-way interaction between aspects of the environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits

nonshared environment

unique aspects of a person's environment and experience that are not shared with family members


a program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community

individualist cultures

cultures in which the self is regarded as autonomous, and individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others

collectivist cultures

cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships, and harmony with one's group is prized above individual goals and wishes

humanist psychology

a psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potential

unconditional positive regard

to carl rogers, love or support given to another person with no conditions attached


a philosophical approach that emphasizes the inevitable dilemmas and challenges of human existence

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