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28 terms

PSY 202 Final Ch 2 - Theories of Personality

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Personality
A distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes and individual
trait
a characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, or feeling
psychoanalysis
a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts
psychodynamic theories
theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual
id
in psychoanalysis, the part of personality containing inherited psychic energy, particularly aggressive/sexual instincts
libido
the psychic energy that fuels the life or sexual instincts of the id.
ego
the part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-control
superego
in psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards.
defense mechanisms
methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness
psychosexual stages
in Freud;s theory, the idea that sexual energy takes different forms as the child matures; the stages are oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
Oedipus complex
doin your mom brah
collective unconscious
the universal memories and experiences of humankind, represented in the symbols, stories, etc that occur across all cultures
object-relations school
a psychodynamic approach that emphasizes the importance of the infant's first two years of life and the baby's formative relationships, especially with the mother
objective tests (inventories)
standardized questionnaires requiring written responses; they typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves.
factor analysis
a statistical method for analyzing the intercorrelations among various measures or test scores; clusters of measures or scores that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait
genes
functional units of heredity; composed of DNA and specify structure of proteins
temperaments
physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways; they are present in infancy and are assumed to be innate.
heritability
statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group
behavioral genetics
an interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of individual differences in behavior and personality
social-cognitive learning theory
a major contemporary learning view of personality, which holds that personality traits result from a person's learning history and his or her expectations, beliefs, perceptions of events, and other cognitions
reciprocal determinism
in social-cognitive theories, the two-way interaction between aspects of the environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits
nonshared environment
unique aspects of a person's environment and experience that are not shared with family members
culture
a program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community
individualist cultures
cultures in which the self is regarded as autonomous, and individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others
collectivist cultures
cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships, and harmony with one's group is prized above individual goals and wishes
humanist psychology
a psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potential
unconditional positive regard
to carl rogers, love or support given to another person with no conditions attached
existentialism
a philosophical approach that emphasizes the inevitable dilemmas and challenges of human existence