Terms in this set (52)

• The Janissaries were Christian boys taken from conquered territories and raised as Special Forces
• The Janissaries were highly skilled soldiers in the Ottoman Empire
• The Janissary - also spelled Janizary or in Turkish, Yeniçeri - was a member of an elite corps in the standing army of the Ottoman Empire from the late 14th century to 1826
• Highly respected for their military prowess in the 15th and 16th centuries, the Janissaries became a powerful political force within the Ottoman state
• The Janissary corps was originally staffed by Christian youths from the Balkan provinces who were converted to Islām on being drafted into the Ottoman service
• The Janissary were part of the Devshirme System or the gathering or collecting of Christian boys in the Ottoman Empire
• Subject to strict rules, including celibacy, they were organized into three unequal divisions (cemaat, bölükhalkı, segban) and commanded by an ağā
• In the late 16th century the celibacy rule and other restrictions were relaxed, and by the early 18th century the original method of recruitment was abandoned
• The Janissaries frequently engineered palace coups in the 17th and 18th centuries, and in the early 19th century they resisted the adoption of European reforms by the army
• Their end came in June 1826 in the so-called Auspicious Incident
• On learning of the formation of new, westernized troops, the Janissaries revolted
• Sultan Mahmud II declared war on the rebels and, on their refusal to surrender, had cannon fire directed on their barracks
• Most of the Janissaries were killed, and those who were taken prisoner were executed
• Christians were brutally persecuted and driven into secrecy
• Before the Tokugawa shoguns came to power, in 1543 the Portuguese traders reach Japan (were actually shipwrecked there) and were soon followed by the Jesuit missionary order (established in 1540) in the person of St. Francis Xavier who arrives in Japan in 1549
• The Jesuits worked among the daimyo of the samurai class and were initially well received by leading daimyo
• However, the reunification of Japan under the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1600 brought with it an emphasis on the reestablishment of order following a century of civil war and turmoil
• Aware of the political and religious domination of the Philippines since the Spanish colonized the country in 1565, the Japanese political leaders were suspicious of the Dominican and Franciscan missionaries that arrived in Japan from the Philippines and worked among the non-samurai classes
• The Japanese daimyo moved to curtail missionary activity beginning in the 1590s
• In 1606, the new Shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu, proscribed Christianity (just at a time the Jesuits were being received at the imperial court in China), and by 1614 a concerted effort to end all Christian practice was underway
• There were an estimated 300,000 Christians in Japan at this time.)
• Apprehensive about the spread of Christianity, Ieyasu expelled all Portuguese and Spanish missionaries, among them Joao Rodrigues, and persecuted Japanese Christians thereby greatly reducing the Christian presence from Japan
• Christianity was viewed as a divisive and foreign threat that could lead to civil war or dissension in Japan
• The Hanseatic League dominated trade in the Baltic region
• The Hanseatic League, also called Hansa, German Hanse, was an organization founded by north German towns and German merchant communities abroad to protect their mutual trading interests
• The league dominated commercial activity in northern Europe from the 13th to the 15th century
• Hanse was a medieval German word for "guild," or "association," derived from a Gothic word for "troop," or "company"
• Northern German mastery of trade in the Baltic Sea was achieved with striking speed and completeness in the late 12th and early 13th centuries
• While overseas, the German merchants had tended increasingly to form associations ("hanses") with each other in order to secure common action against robbers and pirates
• From the mid-13th century this cooperation became much more extensive and regularized, and by 1265 all the north German towns having the "law of Lübeck" had agreed on common legislation for the defense of merchants and their goods
• The Hanseatic League attempted to protect its ship convoys and caravans by quelling pirates and brigands, and it fostered safe navigation by building lighthouses and training pilots
• Most importantly, it sought to organize and control trade throughout northern Europe by winning commercial privileges and monopolies and by establishing trading bases oversea
• The Hanseatic League's aggressively protectionist trading practices often aroused opposition from foreign merchants
• The league typically used gifts and loans to foreign political leaders to protect its commercial privileges, and when this proved inadequate, it threatened to withdraw its trade and occasionally became involved in embargoes and blockades
• The league died slowly as England contested with the Netherlands for dominance in northern European commerce and Sweden emerged as the chief commercial power in the Baltic Sea region
• The Hanseatic League's diet met for the last time in 1669
• The Mali Empire was the second of three West African empires to emerge in the vast savanna grasslands located between the Sahara Desert to the north and the coastal rain forest in the south
• The Mali Empire was strategically located between the West African gold mines and the agriculturally rich Niger River floodplain
• Mali's rise begins when the political leaders of Ghana could not reestablish that empire's former glory following its conquest and occupation by the Almoravids in 1076
• Consequently a number of small states vied to control the salt and gold trade that accounted for Ghana's wealth and power
• In 1235 Sundiata Keita, the leader of one of these states, Kangaba, defeated its principal rival, the neighboring kingdom of Susu, and began consolidating power in the region
• Sundiata's conquest in 1235 is considered the founding of the Malian Empire
• Under Sundiata's successors Mali extended its control west to the Atlantic, south into the rain forest region, including the Wangara gold fields, and east beyond the great bend of the Niger River
• The emperor or mansa ruled
• Trade was centered in three major cities, Timbuktu, Djenne and Gao
• Between 1324 and 1325 Mansa Musa, the most famous of the Malian Emperors, made an elaborate pilgrimage to Mecca in Arabia, bringing thousands of followers and hundreds of camels carrying gold
• Through the highly publicized pilgrimage and indirectly through an elaborate trade that sent gold to the capitals of Europe and Asia, Mali and its ruler became famous throughout the known world
• Mali's power, however, was eventually weakened by palace intrigue that prevented an orderly succession of imperial power and by the desire of smaller states to break free of its rule to reap the benefits of the salt and gold trade
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