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AP HuG Unit 6 - Industrialization and Economic Development
A vocabulary practice set for unit 6 of the AP Human Geography course
Terms in this set (84)
Agricultural labor force
The number of people who work in agriculture. This is important because a large value indicates that the country is likely an LDC dependent on agriculture, while a small value indicates that there are fewer people working in agriculture, meaning that the agriculture is more efficient.
As a percentage of daily requirement is an important index of development. People in MDCs generally consume more than 130% of their daily requirements, but most people in LDCs barely get enough to sustain themselves. The problem is worst in Africa, where most people do not eat enough.
A model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region.
the contact and interaction of one culture with another
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
the act of making some area of land or water more profitable or productive or useful
An indicator of development. MDCs tend to consume much more energy per capita than do LDCs. This will be important in the future because as LDCs begin to industrialize, there will be a great strain on the world's energy supply
Foreign Direct Investment
investing in United States businesses by foreign citizens (often involves stock ownership of the business)
A socially and culturally constructed set of distinctions between masculine and feminine sets of behaviors that is promoted and expected by society
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The total output of all economic activity in the nation, including goods and services.
Gross National Product (GNP)
the total value of all goods and services produced by a country
Human Development Index
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
Levels of Development
undeveloped, developing, developed; based on physical infrastructure, education of population, public health, etc.
Measures of Development
used to distinguish LDCs from MDCs. They include GDP, literacy rate, life expectancy, caloric intake, etc.
control by a powerful country of its former colonies (or other less developed countries) by economic pressures
Physical Quality of Life Index
an attempt to measure the quality of life or well-being of a country. The value is the average of three statistics: basic literacy rate, infant mortality, and life expectancy at age one
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
A monetary measurement which takes account of what money actually buys in each country
economist, developed the "Stages of Growth" model in the late 1950s
- Important because he developed the model that is frequently referred to.
Stages of Growth Model
Stage I -> the "initiation" stage, marked by "hands off" user awareness and an emphasis on functional applications to reduce costs.
Stage II -> the "contagion" stage, a proliferation of applications as well as the potential for more problems to arise.
Stage III -> a need for "control" arises, centralized controls are put in place and a shift occurs from management of computers to management of data resources.
Stage IV -> "integration" of diverse technological solutions evolves, management of data allows development without increasing IT expenditures in Stage V.
Stage VI -> "maturity", high control is exercised by using all the information from the previous stages.
The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
underdeveloped and developing countries of Asia and Africa and Latin America collectively
World Systems Theory
Wallerstein's theory of the core, semi periphery, periphery, and external areas. The core benefited the most from the development of a capitalist world economy. Semi perihpery was the buffer between the core and periphery. Periphery are states that lack strong central gov'ts or are controlled by other states. External areas are states that mainteained their own economic system and for the mosr part, remianed outside of the capitalist world economy
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.
The savings to an individual enterprise derived from locational association with a cluster of other similar economic activities, such as other factories or retail stores
pollution of the atmosphere
Aluminum Industry (Factors of Production, Location)
aluminum business: manufacturers of aluminum considered as a group
Assembly Line Production (Fordism)
social theories about production and related socio-economic phenomena; , industrial arrangement of machines, equipment, and workers for continuous flow of work pieces in mass production operations, each movement of material is made as simple and short as possible
Bid rent theory
geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
Canadian Industrial Heartland
the St. Lawrence Valley - Ontario Peninsula. The region has several assets: centrality to the Canadian market, proximity to the Great Lakes, and access to inexpensive hydroelectric power from Niagara Falls.
An organization that provides communications and networking services. A communications and networking "service provider"
the ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer
A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less-advantaged peripheral regions
The process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition.
process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
primary (raw materials, mining), secondary (making goods, clothing), tertiary (services, banking), quaternary (research, education)
Economies of Scale
as a company produces larger numbers of a particular product, the cost of each of these products goes down
tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature
natural resources that provide people with energy
a port where merchandise can be imported and re-exported without paying import duties
Export processing zone
areas where governments create favorable investments and trading conditions to attract export-oriented industries
costs that do not vary with the quantity of output produced
industry in which the cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for the location of firms
South Korea (largest), Taiwan (moving towards high tech), Singapore (Center for information and technology), Hong Kong(Break of Bulk Point): Because of their booming economies.
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
economic activities that are deliberately organized around one or more high-growth industries
Heartland is the central region of a country or continent; especially a region that is important to a country or to a culture. Rimland is the maritime fringe of a country or continent.
Industrial Location Theory
Alfred Weber, the selection of optimal factory locations has much to do with the minimization of land, labor, resource, and transportation costs, variable-cost framework that affects location of factory sites
Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, East Asia (75% of the world's production)
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
Industry (receding, growing)
Receding: industry is diminishing in size and importance
Growing: industry is increasing in size and importance
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
International division of labor
system of labor whereby products are produced globally, while profits accrue only to a few.
Type of industry in which labor cost is a high percentage of expense.
A site chosen for industrial development where total costs are theoretically at their lowest, as opposed to location at the point of maximum revenue
Major manufacturing regions
The major US industrial region has historically been in Great Lakes, which includes the states of Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania. Industrial regions also exist in southeastern Brazil central england, around Tokyo, Japan, and elsewhere.
The place in which the production and manufacturing of goods is exported.
Based on the principle of agglomeration
Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
a philosophy that assumes that a sale does not depend on an aggressive sales force but rather on a customer's decision to purchase product; it is synonymous with the marketing concept
expansion of economic activity caused by the growth or introduction of another economic activity
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
contracting out selected functions or activities of an organization to other organizations that can do the work more cost efficiently
thinning of Earth's ozone layer caused by CFC's leaking into the air and reacting chemically with the ozone, breaking the ozone molocules apart
factory is located close to market and supplier to reduce need for stalk items, and supplies, "Just in time" delivery.
of or relating to a society or economy marked by a lessened importance of manufacturing and an increase of services, information, and research
the process of cooling or freezing (e.g., food) for preservative purposes
When resources for a national or global market run low.
tendency for an industry or other type of economic activity to locate close to its resources
Special Economic Zones
In 1979, the Chinese government set up these zones on the coast near Macao, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Improved transportation, lower taxes, and other incentives attracted investments from foreign businesses. They helped stimulate innovation and helped China grow economically.
Specialized Economic Zones
specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment.
Principle that maintains that the correct location of a production facility is where the net profit is the greatest. Therefore in industry, there is a tendency to substitute one factor of production (e.g., labor) for another (e.g., capital for automated equipment) in order to achieve optimum plant location.
The population required to make provision of services economically feasible./In economic geography and central place theory, the minimum market needed to support the supply of a product or service
through processes such as globalization time is accelerated and the significance of space is reduced
The deliberate killing of a place through industrial expansion and change, so that its earlier landscape and character are destroyed.
the idea that one country(country A) can produce products that another country (country B) can't; the other country (country B) will then trade for those products with its own products that the other country (country A) can't produce
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
specific industry is inseparable from target market
expenses that change with the number of products produced
Creator of the model that states that the optimum location of a manufacturing firm is explained in terms of cost minimization.
finished products weigh more than raw materials, so the factory needs to be close to the market
raw materials weigh more than the finished product, so the factory needs to be close to the resources
a group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce
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