PSYCH 2: FINAL EXAM CH 13
Terms in this set (64)
Industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology
is a branch of psychology that studies how human behavior and psychology affect work and how they are affected by work
Industrial and organizational psychologists work in four main contexts:
academia, government, consulting firms, and business.
Study of behavior and mental processes
› Efficiency/productivity of organizations
› Health/well-being of employees
Scientific Management - Frank Taylor
› Determine the most efficient methods for performing
any work-related task
› Time and motion studies
› Assembly lines
› Selection and recruitment of military recruits
The field of I-O psychology can be divided into three broad areas
industrial, organizational, and human factors.
is concerned with describing job requirements and assessing individuals for their ability to meet those requirements. In addition, once employees are hired, industrial psychology studies and develops ways to train, evaluate, and respond to those evaluations. As a consequence of its concern for candidate characteristics, industrial psychology must also consider issues of legality regarding discrimination in hiring.
Emphasis on how to use human resources to increase efficiency and productivity
› Job analysis and evaluation › Employee selection
› Performance appraisal
is a discipline interested in how the relationships among employees affect those employees and the performance of a business. This includes studying worker satisfaction, motivation, and commitment. This field also studies management, leadership, and organizational culture, as well as how an organization's structures, management and leadership styles, social norms, and role expectations affect individual behavior. As a result of its interest in worker wellbeing and relationships, organizational psychology also considers the subjects of harassment, including sexual harassment, and workplace violence.
Emphasis on research and practice involving human relations:
› A management approach emphasizing the psychological characteristics of workers and managers, stressing the importance of such factors as morale, attitudes, values, and humane treatment of workers.
• Management Approaches
• Job Satisfaction
• Employee Commitment
• Meaning of Work
• Leadership Styles
Human factors psychology
is the study of how workers interact with the tools of work and how to design those tools to optimize workers' productivity, safety, and health. These studies can involve interactions as straightforward as the fit of a desk, chair, and computer to a human having to sit on the chair at the desk using the computer for several hours each day. They can also include the examination of how humans interact with complex displays and their ability to interpret them accurately and quickly.
What is Human Factors psychology also called?
› Intersection of engineering and psychology
› Focuses on safety and efficiency of human-machine interactions
› Perception, attention, cognition, learning, social, and environmental psychology
› Applied psychology
Hawthorne Studies (1927-1932)
› How work conditions influence productivity
The Hawthorne Effect
› Individual productivity increases when workers are
singled out and made to feel important
› Performance is subject to social pressures and group norms
which means accurately describing the task or job.
› Generating a detailed job description • Follow a systematic procedure
• Break the job into small units
• Create an employee manual
› Job-oriented description
› Person-oriented description › KSAOs
› Compensable factors
• Recruitment • Testing
› Integrity tests and biographical inventories
› Interviewer illusion
› Structured interviews
• Work Samples and Exercises
› Acquaint employees with the organization and with
• Formal Training
› Overlearning - making the task "automatic" › Employee development
› "Natural" mentoring relationship
documented several times a year, often with a formal process and an annual face-to-face brief meeting between an employee and his supervisor.
• Evaluating a person's success at their job
• Sources of Bias › Halo effect
› Distributional error
• Leniency errors
• Severity errors
• Central tendency errors
• 360-Degree Feedback
Part of the function of performance appraisals for the organization is to document poor performance to bolster decisions to terminate an employee.
• The "Japanese" Management Style
• Theory X and Theory Y
› Theory X managers motivate by exerting control and threatening punishment
› Theory Y managers motivate by allowing workers to participate in problem solving
• Strengths-Based Management
described by Edwin Locke (1976) as the state of feeling resulting from appraising one's job experiences
• Measuring Work Attitudes
• Important Factors
› Fairness of compensation
› Personality characteristics of individuals › Cultural influences
Critical Controversy: Happy Workers
• Long-term happiness is related to › Financial independence
› Occupational attainment
› Favorable evaluations
• Job Withdrawal
• Organizational Spontaneity
• Affective Commitment
› Emotional attachment to the organization
• Continuance Commitment
› Perception of economic and social costs of leaving the
• Normative Commitment
› Sense of obligation to the organization
Meaning of Work
• Jobs, Careers, and Callings
› Job - No training, personal control, freedom
› Career - Work as opportunity for advancement › Calling - Work has value beyond economics
• Relationship to Psychological Well-Being
• Job Crafting
› Physical and cognitive changes that individuals make within existing task constraints
› Emphasizes vision for an organization › Four key elements
Providing idealized influence
Inspiring others to achieve
Intellectually stimulating employees Showing concern for employee's well-being
› Promotes organizational identity
Intersection: Who's in Charge?
• Genetic Contributions to Leadership
› Personality traits and twin studies
› Extraversion and achievement motivation
› Transactional and transformational leadership
• Big 5 Personality Traits and Leadership › High extraversion
› High conscientiousness
› Low neuroticism
Leaders; Implicit Followership Theories
Leaders have beliefs/prototypes of what followers are suppose to be like
• Six key factors of LIFT:
› Prototype: Industry, Enthusiasm, Good
› Antiprototype: Insubordination, Incompetence, Conformity
considered the founder of social psychology and much of his work and that of his students produced results that had important influences in organizational psychology, responsible for coining the term group dynamics.
known as mother of modern management, the first woman to join the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1926, and in 1966 she was awarded the Hoover Medal of the American Society of Civil Engineers.
The study of machine-human fit is known as
ergonomics or human factors psychology.
There are two types of interviews:
unstructured and structured
the interviewer may ask different questions of each different candidate. One candidate might be asked about her career goals, and another might be asked about his previous work experience. In an unstructured interview, the questions are often, though not always, unspecified beforehand. And in an unstructured interview the responses to questions asked are generally not scored using a standard system.
the interviewer asks the same questions of every candidate, the questions are prepared in advance, and the interviewer uses a standardized rating system for each response. With this approach, the interviewer can accurately compare two candidates' interviews.
Meta-analysis of studies examining the effectiveness of various types of job interviews
McDaniel, Whetzel, Schmidt & Maurer (1994) found that structured interviews were more effective at predicting subsequent job performance of the job candidate.
is a form of informal training in which an experienced employee guides the work of a new employee. In some situations, mentors will be formally assigned to a new employee, while in others a mentoring relationship may develop informally.
360-degree feedback appraisal
In this system, the employee's appraisal derives from a combination of ratings by supervisors, peers, employees supervised by the employee, and from the employee herself. Occasionally, outside observers may be used as well, such as customers. The purpose of 360-degree system is to give the employee (who may be a manager) and supervisor different perspectives of the employee's job performance; the system should help employees make improvements through their own efforts or through training. The system is also used in a traditional performance-appraisal context, providing the supervisor with more information with which to make decisions about the employee's position and compensation (Tornow, 1993a). **
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
is responsible for enforcing federal laws that make it illegal to discriminate against a job applicant or an employee because of the person's race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or older), disability, or genetic information.
which are traits of an individual that are fundamental to her identity, in hiring, benefits, promotions, or termination of employees.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
of 1990 states people may not be discriminated against due to the nature of their disability. A disability is defined as a physical or mental impairment that limits one or more major life activities such as hearing, walking, and breathing.
Bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQs)
which are requirements of certain occupations for which denying an individual employment would otherwise violate the law. For example, there may be cases in which religion, national origin, age, and sex are bona fide occupational qualifications. There are no BFOQ exceptions that apply to race, although the first amendment protects artistic expressions, such as films, in making race a requirement of a role. Clearcut examples of BFOQs would be hiring someone of a specific religion for a leadership position in a worship facility, or for an executive position in religiously affiliated institutions, such as the president of a university with religious ties. Age has been determined to be a BFOQ for airline pilots; hence, there are mandatory retirement ages for safety reasons. Sex has been determined as a BFOQ for guards in male prisons.
is an increasingly common response to a business's pronounced failure to achieve profit goals, and it involves laying off a significant percentage of the company's employees. Industrial- organizational psychologists may be involved in all aspects of downsizing: how the news is delivered to employees (both those being let go and those staying), how laid-off employees are supported (e.g., separation packages), and how retained employees are supported. The latter is important for the organization because downsizing events affect the retained employee's intent to quit, organizational commitment, and job insecurity (Ugboro, 2006).
Many people juggle the demands of work life with the demands of their home life, whether it be caring for children or taking care of an elderly parent; this is known as
Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) first identified three sources of work-family conflicts:
• time devoted to work makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of family, or vice versa,
• strain from participation in work makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of family, or vice versa,
• specific behaviors required by work make it difficult to fulfill the requirements of family, or vice versa.
Women often have greater responsibility for family demands, including home care, child care, and caring for aging parents, yet men in the United States are increasingly assuming a greater share of domestic responsibilities. However, research has documented that women report greater levels of stress from work-family conflict
Ways to decrease work-family conflict and improve people's job satisfaction
include support in the home, which can take various forms: emotional (listening), practical (help with chores). Workplace support can include understanding supervisors, flextime, leave with pay, and telecommuting. Flextime usually involves a requirement of core hours spent in the workplace around which the employee may schedule his arrival and departure from work to meet family demands.
involves employees working at home and setting their own hours, which allows them to work during different parts of the day, and to spend part of the day with their family.
a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows with the main objective of improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity
combined scientific management and human relations into the notion of leadership behavior. His theory lays out two different styles called Theory X and Theory Y.
approach to management, managers assume that most people dislike work and are not innately self-directed. Theory X managers perceive employees
prefer to be led and told which tasks to perform and when. Their employees have to be watched carefully to be sure that they work hard enough to fulfill the organization's goals. Theory X workplaces will often have employees punch a clock when arriving and leaving the workplace: Tardiness is punished.
approach, on the other hand, managers assume that most people seek inner satisfaction and fulfillment from their work. Employees function better under leadership that allows them to participate in, and provide input about, setting their personal and work goals. In Theory Y workplaces, employees participate in decisions about prioritizing tasks; they may belong to teams that, once given a goal, decide themselves how it will be accomplished.
Donald Clifton, who focused his research on how an organization can best use an individual's strengths, an approach he called
the focus is on supervision and organizational goals, which are achieved through a system of rewards and punishments (i.e., transactions). Transactional leaders maintain the status quo: They are managers.
possess four attributes to varying degrees: They are charismatic (highly liked role models), inspirational (optimistic about goal attainment), intellectually stimulating (encourage critical thinking and problem solving), and considerate
encompasses the values, visions, hierarchies, norms, and interactions among its employees. It is how an organization is run, how it operates, and how it makes decisions—the industry in which the organization participates may have an influence.
Ostroff, Kinicki, and Tamkins (2003) identify three layers in organizational culture
observable artifacts, espoused values, and basic assumptions.
are the symbols, language (jargon, slang, and humor), narratives (stories and legends), and practices (rituals) that represent the underlying cultural assumptions.
are concepts or beliefs that the management or the entire organization endorses.
They are the rules that allow employees to know which actions they should take in different situations and which information they should adhere to. These basic assumptions generally are unobservable and unquestioned.
educates participants about cultural differences with the goal of improving teamwork.
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual's employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual's work performance, or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment.
Forms of sexual harassment
quid pro quo, threat of withholding a reward if a sexual request is refused
Quid pro quo
Quid pro quo means you give something to get something, and it refers to a situation in which organizational rewards are offered in exchange for sexual favors. Quid pro quo harassment is often between an employee and a person with greater power in the organization. For example, a supervisor might request an action, such as a kiss or a touch, in exchange for a promotion, a positive performance review, or a pay raise
Different targets of workplace violence
a person could commit violence against coworkers, supervisors, or property. Warning signs often precede such actions: intimidating behavior, threats, sabotaging equipment, or radical changes in a coworker's behavior. Often there is intimidation and then escalation that leads to even further escalation. It is important for employees to involve their immediate supervisor if they ever feel intimidated or unsafe.
Second leading cause of death in the workplace?
refers to the fairness of the processes by which outcomes are determined in conflicts with or among employees.
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