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Cotafano (Important Points)- Davis
Terms in this set (67)
What makes up the pharyngeal plexus?
Glossopharyngeal, Vagus, and sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion
What artery can have a variation which can be injured during a tonsillectomy?
Internal carotid artery; The variation is a loop which is right behind the palatine tonsils
What should one do prior to performing a tonsillectomy?
Palpate the posterior wall of the pharynx for a loop of the internal carotid artery. (This is a variation)
Afferent loop of gag reflex is transmitted by what nerve?
Glossopharyngeal Nerve CN (IX)
Efferent loop of gag reflex is transmitted by what nerve?
Vagus Nerve (CN X)
Afferent loop of the pharyngeal reflex is transmitted by what nerve?
Lesser palatine nerve (from CN V2)
What is an important reference point used during endotracheal intubation?
In the throat, where is a common place that food/foreign bodies become trapped?
Piriform sinus (piriform recess)
There is no fusion between lateral nasal process and ______________ process?
Which processes form the nose?
Medial and lateral processes of both sides
Which processes form the intermaxillary segment and philtrum?
medial nasal processes of both sides
Which processes form the upper lip?
medial nasal process and maxillary process
Which processes form the palate?
lateral palatine processes
Injury to what nerve will cause a dry nose? Why?
Nasopalatine nerve (branch of V2; runs through foramen rotundum); Nose will be dry bc parasympathetic input can't work
What is the output of pterygopalatine ganglion?
1. Sensory (V2)
2. Parasympathetic (Vidian nerve)
3. Sympathetic (Vidian nerve)
What pierces the buccinator muscle?
The parotid duct
What is the innervation and action of tensor veli palatini?
Mandibular nerve (CN V3); It tenses the soft palate
What is the sensory innervation of the hard and soft palate?
BRANCHES OF MAXILARY NERVE (CNV2)
1. Greater and less palatine nerve
2. Nasopalatine nerve
Touch and temperature sensation of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue is provided by what nerve?
Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
Where does lymph from the tip of the tongue drain?
Where does lymph from the lateral sides of tongue drain?
Where does lymph from the middle aspect of tongue and posterior tongue drain?
Deep cervical nodes
Where does lymph from the palatine tonsils drain?
What glands does Wharton's duct drain?
Submandibular and Sublingual glands.
Wharton's duct opens within the sublingual papilla.
Which arches form the outer ear?
1st and 2nd pharyngeal arches
What arteries are involved in the Zilinksy-Cotofona-Arcade?
Superior branch of the anterior auricular artery and Inferior branch of the anterior auricular artery.
What nerve is responsible for the cough reflex that occurs when you are cleaning your ears with a Q-Tip?
Where is the position of the cone of light in the right ear?
Where is the position of the cone of light in the left ear?
Which bones ossify first?
Malleus, Incus, Stapes
What nerves are responsible for the acoustic reflex?
CN V and CN VII
What is the name of a condition that occurs when infection extends to the air cells of the skull behind the ear?
Mastoiditis (Usually caused by untreated middle ear infections)
What 2 muscles are important for opening the Eustachian tube?
1. Tensor veli palatini muscle
2. levator veli palatini muscle
What makes up the tympanic plexus?
CN IX and superior cervical ganglion
A swollen ______________ can compress the eustachian tube.
adenoid (pharyngeal tonsil)
What are the components of the bony labyrinth?
cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals, middle meningeal artery, internal carotid artery, ascending pharyngeal artery
Where will a thyroglossal duct cyst occur?
In the midline of the neck
What part of the capsule around the thyroid fuses pretracheal fascia?
Ligament of Berry
Superior thyroid artery travels with the ________________.
External laryngeal nerve
What is the name of an auto-antibody disease that causes hyperthyroidism?
What type of deficiency results in hypothyroidism?
What structures can be damaged during in a thyroidectomy?
recurrent laryngeal nerves and/or parathyroid glands
What pharyngeal pouch gives rise to the thymus?
What glands control calcium and phosphate metabolism?
What is the skeletal disorder caused by hyperparathyroidsim?
Osteitis fibrosa cystica
Performed as a last resort to establish a patent airway?
Cricothyrotomy (Cricothyroid membrane is pierced)
Artificial opening in the trachea. May be used for patients with longer intervals of artificial ventilation.
Vestibular folds = ________________
false vocal cords (mucosa covered inferior edges of quadrangluar membrane)
Vocal folds = _________________
true vocal cords (mucosa covered superior edges of conus elasticus)
Swelling of the vocal folds due to fluid collection in the lamina propria of vocal folds.
Reinke's edema (can be caused by hypothyroidism)
What is the innervation of the cricothyroid muscle?
External laryngeal nerve (from CN X)
What nerve innervates all of the laryngeal muscles below the vocal cords, except cricothyroid muscle?
Inferior laryngeal nerve (= recurrent laryngeal nerve) (from CN X)
What is the ONLY ABductor (opener) of the vocal folds?
Posterior cricoartyenoid muscle (paralysis of this muscle may lead to suffocation, bc the airway cannot be opened)
Superior laryngeal artery travels with ______________.
Internal laryngeal nerve
Recurrent laryngeal nerve is termed ___________ laryngeal nerve after passing the cricothyroid joint.
The recurrent laryngeal nerves are very close to what artery?
Inferior thyroid artery
Function of the cricothyroid muslce?
apply tension to vocal cords (this is how singers hit high notes)
What nerve pierces the thyrohyoid membrane?
Internal laryngeal nerve (supplies cutaneous sensation to larynx above vocal cords; also supplies taste to epiglottis)
What nerve provides sensory to the vocal cords and below the vocal cords?
Inferior laryngeal nerve
What nerve innervates the stapedius?
CN VII (The stapedius pulls the stapes away from oval window; this is a protective reflex in the presence of loud sounds)
What muscle attaches to the handle of the malleus?
Tensor tympani muscle (V3; part of acoustic reflex; it tenses the tympanic membrane)
What is the front (lateral) door of the pterygopalatine fossa?
Pterygomaxially fissure--> infratemporal fossa
What is the back (medial) door of the pterygopalatine fossa?
Sphenopalatine foramen--> nasal cavity
How does the pterygopalatine fossa communicate with the middle cranial fossa?
1. Foramen Rotundum
2. Pterygoid canal
How does the pterygopalatine fossa communicate with the orbit?
Inferior orbital fissure
Deep petrosal nerve (Sympathetic from Superior Cervical Ganglion) + Greater petrosal nerve (Parasympathetic from CN VII)
Runs in nerve to pterygoid canal
Vidian Nerve (Nerve to Pterygoid)
What artery runs superficial to the buccinator muscle?
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