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Patho ch 20
Terms in this set (63)
A patient's anemia is described as having erythrocytes that demonstrate anisocytosis. The nurse would recognize the erythrocytes would be:
Able to assume various shapes
A newborn is diagnosed with congenital intrinsic factor deficiency. Which of the following types of anemia will the nurse see documented on the chart?
When a nurse is reviewing lab results and noticed that the erythrocytes contain an abnormally low concentration of hemoglobin, the nurse calls these erythrocytes:
A 5-year-old male was diagnosed with normocytic-normochromic anemia. Which of the follwing anemias does the nurse suspect the patient has?
After initial compensation, what hemodynamic change should the nurse monitor for in a patient who has a reduction in the number of circulating erythrocytes?
Hyperdynamic circulatory state
A 25-year-old female has a heavy menses during which she loses a profuse amount of blood. Which of the following adaptions should the nurse expect?
A 60-year-old female emphysema patient experiences a rapid and pounding heart, dizziness, and fatigue with exertion. Which of the following respiratory assessment findings indicate the respiratory system is compensating for the increased oxygen demand?
Increased rate and depth of breathing
A 2-year-old malnourished child has vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies. A blood smear suggests the deficiency is macrocytic and normochromic. The nurse would expect the hemoglobin to be:
A 45-year-old male is diagnosed with macrocytic, normochromic anemia. The nurse suspects the most likely cause of this condition is:
Defective DNA synthesis
When a patient wants to know why vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies cause anemia, how should the nurse respond?
Red blood cells have a shorter life span
A 20-year-old female undergoes lab testing for anemia. Results show high iron, bilirubin, and transferrin and low hemoglobin and hematocrit. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis to be documented on the chart?
A 35-year-old female is diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia (pernicious anemia). How should the nurse respond when the patient asks what causes pernicious anemia? A decrease in ______ is the most likely cause.
Which of the following individuals should the nurse asses first for a vitamin B12 deficiency anemia?
A 47-year-old male who had a gastrectomy procedure (removal of the stomach)
A 65-year-old male experienced loss of appetite, weight loss, lemon-yellow skin, liver enlargement, and a beefy red tongue shortly before his death. Autopsy suggested pernicious anemia, and the cause of death would most likely reveal:
A 40-year-old male vegetarian is diagnosed with folate deficiency anemia. He reports that he is an alcoholic. Which of the following factors put him at greatest risk for developing his disease?
How should the nurse prepare a patient who is to receive a Schilling test for pernicious anemia?
Administer radioactive cobalamin and measure its excretion in the urine.
A 67-year-old female has chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. A nurse recalls the primary cause of her anemia is:
Iron deficiency anemia
A 34-year-old male presents in the emergency room with extreme fatigue and shortness of breath. his skin and sclera appear to have a yellowish discoloration. These assessment findings are consistent with which type of anemia?
A 58-year-old female presents in the clinic presenting with fatigue, weight loss, and tingling in her fingers. Laboratory findings show low hemoglobin and hematocrit, a high mean corpuscular volume, and normal plasma iron. These assessment findings are consistent with which type of anemia?
The nurse will check which of the following tests to directly measure iron stores?
Bone marrow biopsy
A 21-year-old female was recently diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia. In addition to fatigue and weakness, which of the following clinical signs and symptoms would she most likely exhibit?
A 21-year-old woman was recently diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia. Her hematocrit is 32%. Which of the following treatments would the nurse expect to be prescribed for her?
A 45-year-old male is diagnosed with sideroblastic anemia. When he asks what the most likely cause of this disease is, what is the nurse's best response?
Ineffective iron uptake and abnormal hemoglobin production
A 50-year-old female was diagnosed with sideroblastic anemia. Which of the following assessment findings would most likely occur?
Bronze colored skin
A nurse is preparing to teach the staff about aplastic anemia. Which information should the nurse include? Aplastic anemia is caused by:
Stem cell deficiency
A nurse recalls posthemorrhagic anemia can result in death when a patient's blood loss is an excess of:
40% to 49%
A 57-year-old male presents to his primary care provider for red face, hands, feet, ears, and headache and drowsiness. A blood smear reveals an increased number of erythrocytes, indicating:
Polycythemia vera (PV)
A 67-year-old female is admitted to the emergency department with a diagnosis of polycythemia vera. Upon taking the history, the patient will most likely report:
A 68-year-old female is admitted to the emergency department with a diagnosis of polycythemia vera (PV). A nurse realizes the patient's symtoms are mainly the result of:
Increased blood viscosity
A 67-year-old female is admitted to the emergency department with a diagnosis of polycythemia vera (PV). Which treatment should the nurse discuss with the patient?
A 70-year-old male is brought to the emergency department, where he dies shortly thereafter. Autopsy reveals polycythemia vera (PV). His death was most likely the result of:
A 67-year-old male was diagnosed with polycythemia vera (PV) but refused treathment. His condition is at risk for converting to:
Acute myeloid leukemia
A staff member asks what leukocytosis means. How should the nurse respond? Leukocytosis can be defined as:
A high leukocyte count
A 20-year-old female has an increase in eosinophils. When the patient wants to know the most likely cause of the eosinophilia. What is the nurse's best response?
Parasitic invasion and allergic reactions
A 15-year-old female presents with splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and lymph node enlargement. She is diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis. What should the nurse tell the patient about the recovery time?
A few weeks
A 35-year-old male with hyperthyroidism begins treatment to decrease thyroid activity. A nurse monitors for which of the following conditions that could result secondary to the treatment?
A 15-year-old male is diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis. When the patient asks how we got this disease, how should the nurse respond? The most likely cause is:
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
A 15-year-old male with infectious mononucleosis is being given instructions on how to prevent the spread of this infection to others. Which statement represents a correct instruction?
Do not share drinking glasses or eating utensils.
A 10-year-old male is diagnosed with leukemia. The nurse assesses for which other condition that could be associated with his disease?
A 5-year-old female is diagnosed with acute leukemia. The nurse will most likely treat this patient with:
An oncologist is discussing multiple myeloma. Which information should the oncologist include? Multiple myeloma can be defined as a neoplasm of:
A 65-year-old male is diagnosed with multiple myeloma. He reports severe pain. This pain can be attributed to:
Destruction of bone tissue
A 35-year-old female is diagnosed with lymphadenopathy. Which assessment finding will confirm this diagnosis.
Enlarged lymph nodes
A 35-year-old male has enlarged lymph nodes in the neck and a medistinal mass. He was diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma. Which of the following abnormal cells would the nurse expect to find with this disease?
The people from which country have the lowest risk for Hodgkin lymphoma?
A 62-year-old female tells her health care provider she has been experiencing regular night sweats that cause her to wake up drenched. She also remarks that she has been unintentionally losing weight. Physical exam reveals enlarged lymph nodes on her neck that do not appear to be painful. She should be screened for which of the following cancers?
A 10-year-old male presents with abdominal swelling, night sweats, fever, and weight loss. He is diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma. Upon obtaining the history, which of the following is the most likely cause?
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
For a patient experiencing hpersplenism, the nurse expects the erythrocytes to be:
Thrombocytopenia may be:
Congenital or acquired
A 30-year-old female presents with hematuria, menorrhagia, and bleeding gums. She is diagnosed with immune thrombocytic purpura (ITP). A nurse realizes the most likely cause is:
Antibody destruction of platelets
A 50-year-old female is diagnosed with primary thrombocythemia. A nurse would expect the blood smear to reveal _____ platelets.
A 52-year-old male IV drug user was diagnosed with hepatitis C 5 years ago. He is now experiencing impaired blood clotting. The nurse suspects a decrease in which of the following vitamins?
A nurse checks individuals with liver disease for clotting problems because:
Clotting factors are produced in the liver
A 40-year-old female develops disseminate intravascular coagulation (DIC). Upon obtaining the history, which finding is the most likely cause of this condition?
A nurse is teaching the staff about disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Which information should the nurse include? The sequence of events in DIC is initiated by the release of:
A disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), the nurse assesses for active bleeding after intravascular clotting because:
Clotting factors are depleted
A 22-year-old-female just delivered a healthy baby girl. She suffered from eclampsia during her pregnancy, and on the second postpartum day she complained of bleeding gums and bruising on her arms and legs. Hematology lab tests indicate that she had disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Further review of lab tests by the nurse revealed an increase in:
Fibrin degradation products (FDPs)
When the nurse sees a diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis on the chart, the nurse knows this is a disorder or:
A patient has microcytic hypochromic anemia. Which of the following pathogenic mechanisms may cause anemia in this patient? (Select all that apply.)
- Decreased erythrocyte life span
- Failure of mechanisms of compensatory erythropoiesis
- Disturbances of the iron cycle
A 15-year-old male is diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis. Which of the following assessment findings would he most likely demonstrate? (Select all that apply.)
- Lymph node enlargement
- Fever and sore throat
- Enlargement of liver and spleen
A patient wants to know about risk factors for acute leukemia. Which of the following should the nurse include? (Select all that apply.)
- Chemotherapy treatment for other cancers
- Excessive utlraviolet radiation exposure
- Ovarian cancer
A 35-year-old male was diagnosed with hepatitis B. Further tests revealed neutropenia characterized by a neutrophil count less than ____ per milliliter.
A nurse realizes a patient has thrombocytopenia when the platelet count is below ___ platelets per cubic millimeter.
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