Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (62)
What happens during mitosis?
One cell copies itself from cell division
What occurs during interphase?
Cell grows and copies DNA, prepares for mitosis
What are cyclins?
Proteins that are rapidly made and destroyed
What is cancer?
Uncontrollable cell division
As a cell increases in size, which increases faster volume or surface area?
What are the phases of the cell cycle and what occurs in each one?
G1 cell growth, synthesis copies DNA
G2 cell growth, prepare for mitosis-cell division
When are chromosomes visible during the cell cycle?
During what phase do chromosomes line up in the middle of the dividing cell?
What is the function of the spindle?
Connect to sister chromatids and separate them.
If a parent has 46 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will each daughter cell have after dividing?
What happens to the growth rate of normal cells when they come into contact with other cells?
They stop growing
What is a hybrid?
Dominant and Recessive
What are genes
Piece of DNA that provides a set of instructions in a cell to make a certain protein
According to Mendel's Principles, how are traits inherited?
Separately; independent assortment
What are homologous chromosomes?
Two chromosomes; one from mom and one from dad
What is the difference between Homozygous and Heterozygous alleles?
Homozygous is two copies of the same allele
Heterozygous is one of each allele
When does an organism have a recessive trait?
When it has 2 copies
How can the principles of probability be applied to genetics?
To determine the possibilities of offspring having a certain trait
What is true breeding plant? What is the genotype of a true breeding short plant?
A plant that only produces offspring with the same traits.tt
Explain self pollination
pollen on a flower of the same flower that produced the pollen, thereby pollinating the flower
What does a punnett square show?
What is the law of independent assortment?
Alleles pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes.
What is the law of segregation?
During the production of gametes, the two copies of each chromosome segregate so the offspring acquires one factor from each parent.
What is the symbol that represents the number of chromosomes in a gamete?
Why does a gamete have half the number of chromosomes then a normal body cell?
Gametes are only related to the sex of the organism
If an organisms diploid number is 28 then what is its haploid number?
What is meiosis?
A two part cell division process and an organism
What is a tetrad, and when do they form?
Two homologous chromosome pairs, meiosis prophase I
What happens or doesn't happen between Meiosis I and Meiosis II that reduces the number of chromosomes?
Replication doesn't occur
The difference between Meiosis and Mitosis?
Mitosis has 2 genetically identical diploid cells and Meiosis has 4 genetically different haploid cells
What is the result of Meiosis?
It has 4 genetically different haploid cells
What is incomplete dominance?
Neither allele is completely dominant, a blend. For example, red flower, white flower, pink flower
When each allele is completely and separately expressed. For example, red flower, white flower, red and white spotted flower
What does it mean when something is controlled by multiple alleles?
traits that are controlled by tree or more alleles
What is polygenic?
Traits that are produced by two or more genes. For example, hair color, eye color, and skin color
What is a karyotype?
The characterization of the chromosome complement of a species such as the shape, type, number, etc. of chromosomes.
How many chromosomes does a normal human body have?
Probability of having a male child and a female child?
How is your ABO blood type determined?
Multiple alleles-3 or more
What blood type of an off spring of a man with A and a woman B blood type?
AB, B, A, O
What are the sex chromosomes of male and female?
XX and XY
What sex chromosomes do an egg have and a sperm cell have?
Egg X, Sperm X or Y
% of sperm cell carrying an X chromosomes
Why is color blindness more common in males?
The allele for color blindness is on X and recessive.
Females two copies and males need only one to be expressed
Chargaff's Rules for base pairing
DNA located eukaryote, prokaryote
Put E= Nucleus, P=Cytoplasm
What is the result of DNA replication?
Two identical strands of DNA
What would a DNA strand of ATGGCTGA pair with during replication?
What is the sugar in DNA, RNA
End result of transcription?
one RNA strand
What are some ways RNA and DNA are alike and how are they different?
Alike: Genetic info based pairing, Sugar-Phosphate backbone
Different: R one strand, D two strand, D double helix, D has thymine and R has uracil
How many Codons are used to express four amino acids?
Difference between codons and anticodons?
C= triplet sequence of mRNA
A= corresponding triplet of tRNA
Three main types of RNA
Messenger RNA, Ribosomal RNA, Transfer RNA
Types of RNA involved in protein synthesis?
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
What amino acids does the following mRNA strand identify? AUG
What happens during translation?
decoding of mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
The instructions that genes carry are for assembling _______.
Difference between point mutation and frameshift mutation?
Point:single nucleotide base change in the DNA
Frameshift:one or more bases are inserted or deleted.
What is silent mutation?
Mutation that doesn't affect the phenotype
Mutation and what kind of cells can be passed on to offspring?
What is crossing-over and when does it occur?
When homologous chromosomes exchange chromosome segments. Prophase 1
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Biology Quarter 3 Exam
Honors Biology Cell Division
Biology Tri 2 final review