47 terms

Chapter 28

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Sick man of Europe
the ottoman empire was referred to the sick man of europe. Europe was waiting for it to die (fall) so it could colonize
Dreadnoughts
Giant battleships; the British had the most in their powerful navy, A class of British battleships whose heavy armaments made all other battleships obsolete overnight.
Mobilization
the process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war, act of assembling and putting into readiness for war or other emergency: "mobilization of the troops" railroads were a big part of this.
Belligerents
participants in a war, For nearly three years the United States kept neutral and tried to persuade
the belligerents to compromise.
Western Front
A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other.
Lusitania
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
Zionism
led by Theodore Herzl, arose among those who wanted to return to their ancestral homeland in Palestine. The concept of a Jewish homeland appealed to many Europeans, Jews and gentiles alike, as a humanitarian solution to the problem of anti-Semitism.
Soviets
Neighborhood councils made up of delegates from factories, shops, trade unions, and political parties that helped organize strikes. The establishment of which were with the Mensheviks.
Cheka
The re-established tsarist secret police, which hunted down and executed thousands of real or suspected foes, sowing fear and silencing opposition.
Paris Peace Conference
At the Paris Peace Conference France, Britain, Italy, and Japan proposed to divide the former German colonies and the territories of the Ottoman Empire among themselves, but their ambitions clashed with President Wilson's ideal of national self-determination
League Of Nations
International diplomatic and peace organization created with the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I; one of the chief goals of President Woodrow Wilson of the United States in the peace negotiations; the United States was never a member.
Guilt Clause
A clause in the Treaty of Versailles that forced Germany to accept full blame for the war; this clause caused great resentment among the German people toward the Allies.
Red Army
Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans.
The Society of the Righteous Fists
in 1900 China's Empress Dowager Cixi, who had seized power in a palace coup two years earlier, encouraged a secret society, the Righteous Fists, or Boxers, to rise up and expel all the foreigners from China
Revolutionary Alliance
The alliance led by Sun Yat-sen that held a mix of nationalism, socialism, patriotism and Confucianism.
The Guomindang
Sun reorganized his followers into a political party called Guomindang (National People's Party), Yuan quashed every attempt at creating a Western-style government and harassed Sun's followers.
May Fourth Movement
Resistance to Japanese encroachments in China began on this date in 1919; spawned movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy; rejected Confucianism.
Mandates
colonial rulers would administer the territories but would be accountable to the League of Nations for "the material and moral well-being and the social progress of the inhabitants."
Kibbutzim
Collective agricultural settlements set up by Jewish settlers in what is now Israel in the late ineteenth century and continuing to the present
The Palestinian Question
Before the war, a Jewish minority lived in Palestine, as in other Arab countries. As soon as Palestine became a British mandate in 1920, Jewish immigrants began arriving from Europe, encouraged by the Balfour Declaration of 1917. Most settled in the cities, but some purchased land to establish kibbutzim, communal farms. Their goals were to become self-sufficient and to reestablish their ties to the land of their ancestors.
The Jazz Singer
The United States had introduced the first "talking" motion picture, The Jazz Singer (1927
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to Austro-Hungarian throne; his assassination precipitated the events that developed into World War I.
Gavriel Princip
Serbian nationalist, assassin of Archduke Ferdinand.
Theodor Herzl
Prominent journalist who led the cause of Zionism in the late 19th century.
Chaim Weizmann
Israeli statesman who persuaded the United States to recognize the new state of Israel and became its first president (1874-1952)
Alexander Kerensky
Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.
Vladimir Lenin
Founder of the Russian Communist Party, this man led the November Revolution in 1917 which established a revolutionary soviet government based on a union of workers, peasants, and soldiers.
Woodrow Wilson
American president who initially claimed neutrality in the war but later joined the Allied cause; his Fourteen Points and American fighting forces hastened an Allied victory; one of the Big Four at Versailles.
David Lloyd George
British prime minister at Versailles who attempted to mediate between Wilson's "peace without victory" stand and Clemenceau's, but with only partial success.
George Clemenceau
French premier at Versailles peace conference who insisted on punishing Germany after the war; one of the Big Four.
Leon Trotsky
Russian revolutionary intellectual and close adviser to Lenin. A leader of the Bolshevik Revolution (1917), he was later expelled from the Communist Party (1927) and banished (1929) for his opposition to the authoritarianism of Stalin
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Sun Yat-Sun
1st leader of the Nationalist revolution W. education+Christian, wanted a democracy, but could not pull it off by himself- Euro. no help so he went 2 the Soviet Union 4 aid, promised 2 distribute land 2 peasants large landowners opposed this
~became president of the new Rep. of Chi.
~hoped 2 establish a modern governmentt based on "Three Principles of the people."
~lacked authority+military support 2 secure national unity
Yuan Shikai
Chinese general and first president of the Chinese Republic (1912-1916). He stood in the way of the democratic movement led by Sun Yat-sen.
Emperor Puyi
last occupant of Qing throne as infant; served Japanese as puppet ruler of Manchukuo; underwent "thought reform"
Mustafa Kemal
Postwar leader of Turkey who launched sweeping reforms, including women's suffrage and a Latin-based alphabet.
Max Planck
German physicist whose explanation of blackbody radiation in the context of quantized energy emissions initiated quantum theory (1858-1947)
Albert Einstein
German physicist who developed the theory of relativity, which states that time, space, and mass are relative to each other and not fixed.
Sigmund Freud
austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis
The Great War
Another name for World War I, used by Europeans until the advent of World War II.
Arab Revolt of 1916
Arab irregulars took out Ottoman forces in northern Arabia, Palestine, and Syria, paving the way for the British conquest of Palestine in 1917
Russian Civil War
conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.
Triple Alliance
Military and political alliance formed before World War I to counter moves by potential rivals England, France, and Russia; consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
Entente
Military and political alliance formed before World War I by England, France, and Russia; created to challenge moves made by the Triple Alliance.
Balfour Declaration
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.