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Marzano - The Art and Science of Teaching
Strategies with rationale
Terms in this set (228)
Marzano's Nine Instructional Strategies
1. Identify similarities and differences
2. Summarizing and Note Taking
3. Reinforce Effort and Provide Recognition
4. Homework and Practice
5. Nonlinguistic Representations
6. Cooperative Learning
7. Setting Objective and Providing Feedback
8. Generate and Test Hypotheses
9. Cues, Questions, and Advanced Organizers
Identify similarities and differences
The ability to break a concept into its similar/dissimilar characteristics
allows students to understand (and often solve) complex problems by
analyzing them in a more simple way.
Ex: Venn Diagrams, Box and T chart, sorting/catergorizing
Summarizing and Note Taking
promote greater comprehension by asking students to analyze what's essential and then put it in their own words - requires substituting, deleting, and keeping key ideas
Ex. Summary, predication, main ideas
Reinforce Effort and Provide Recognition
Recognizing effort shows connection between effort and achievement, motivates students. Symbolic recognition better than tangible rewards
Ex. Shout-outs, stories about perseverance, team points, student log of effort and achievements
Homework and Practice
extends learning outside of classroom
Ex. homework policy with limited parent help
knowledge is storied in linguistic and visual forms - nonlinguistic representations increases brain activity
Ex. CCD with visual and gesture, illustrated personal dictionaries, GLAD inputs
promotes learning through positive interdependence, group
interaction, and individual/group accountability, building on ideas, constructing meaning together, peer teaching
Ex. GLAD teams, science partnerships
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
Setting objectives can provide students with a direction for their learning. Feedback to correct misunderstandings and provide affirmation.
Ex. teacher and student generated objectives, KWL chart, rubrics, graded work in a timely manner
Generating and Testing Hypotheses
using a deductive approach (using a general rule to make a prediction) to this strategy works best
Ex. Predictions with rationales, generate questions, construct ways to investigate
Cues, Questions, and Advanced Organizers
help students use what they
already know about a topic to enhance further learning - highly analytical, focus on key ideas, before a learning experience
Ex. Activate prior knowledge, skim text, have students ask questions, graphic organizers for comprehension
Games or activities used to engage students. Games stimulate attention because they involve the discovery of the missing information. Games should focus on academic content so that they represent a form of review.
Acknowledging Adherence to Rules and Procedures:
Verbal and non-verbal behaviors that communicate positive reinforcement for whole, or as individual students, that they did a nice job carrying out a procedure, following rules and procedures.
Guided learning experiences planned and facilitated by the teacher that take place in a class
Information presented at the beginning of a lesson to be used by the students to link what is known with what is to be learned, or to help students organize material
Learning experiences designed to be completed independently in class or as a homework opportunity to extend classroom learning
Procedures executed at the level of automaticity that minimize disruption and maximize instructional time
Common Language of Instruction:
A research-based framework that describes and defines teaching
Leading students to a concept by asking them to compare and contrast examples (exemplars) that continue the characteristics (attributes) of the concept with examples that do not contain those attributes
Critical Input Experience:
When students engage in one or more of the following activities: read a section of the textbook, listen to a lecture, observe a demonstration, be part of a demonstration, or watch a video regarding content that is critical to a learning goal. If students understand the content provided in these activities, they have a good start toward the accomplishment of the learning goals. To increase understanding, teachers should facilitate students' actively processing the content.
Questions teachers ask themselves as they are designing learning experiences for their students
Practice sessions provided over longer periods of time to help students develop and maintain fluency of skills or processes
According to Marzano, there are two complimentary dynamics that constitute an effective teacher-student relationship. The first is the extent to which the teacher gives students the sense that he/she is providing guidance and control both behaviorally and academically. The second is the extent to which the teacher provides a sense that teacher and student are a team devoted to the well being of all participants.
Keeping a type of emotional distance from the ups and downs of classroom life and not taking outbursts, or even students' direct acts of disobedience, personally
Enacted on the Spot:
Teaching behaviors and activities a teacher can plan for to react to situations that occur in the moment; these can be required/enacted at any point in a lesson. For example, these behaviors address the following questions: What will I do when students disengage? What will I do when students fail to follow rules and procedures? How will I recognize when students are successful following rules and procedures? How will I develop and maintain effective relationships with my students? How will I communicate high expectation for all students?
Teacher designs a learning experience that helps students review or practice new content in order to deepen their understanding. The teacher's role is to guide the practice through the structure of the task or, by circulating, to check for understanding.
Formative Approach to Assessment:
Any assessment used by educators to evaluate student knowledge and understanding of particular content, and then to adjust and plan further learning experiences accordingly to improve student achievement in that area. Formative assessments are administered while students are learning new information and skills. Frequency of these assessments is directly related to student academic achievement.
Group Processing/Cooperative Learning:
One of the benefits of processing information in groups is that it can enhance the processing of new information because interacting in groups provides students with multiple reference points. Groups should be established to facilitate active processing of information during a critical input experience. Groups can be as small as pairs or as large as five. These groups should be guided by operating rules.
High Expectancy Students:
Those students a teacher expects to perform well for one reason or another.
High Probability Strategies:
Research-based strategies have a high probability of raising student achievement if they are used; in part (segment) or type of lesson that is appropriate for the strategy and at the appropriate level of implementation. The simple presence or absence of an instructional strategy does not define effectiveness, but it is rather the teacher's expertise in the "art of teaching" in adapting that strategy to the classroom within the context of lesson segment that produces gains in student achievement.
Academic games a teacher initiates as a result of student feedback
Thin slices of teacher behavior showing research-based instructional strategies for teaching and learning
Techniques used by teachers to facilitate students' independence using new knowledge. For example: previewing content by scanning a text, activating prior knowledge using a KWL activity, deepening understanding by using a comparison matrix, or generating and testing hypotheses by posing a problem to solve.
A multi-purpose, web-based online tool that aids in the teacher feedback and evaluation process, to include recording observation data and evaluations, teacher observation protocols, conferencing and discussion groups, and a resource library for professional development
A cooperative learning technique in which students are assigned to four-person heterogeneous groups that are assigned topics on which they are to become experts. Students with the same expert topic from different teams meet in groups to discuss and research their topic. After they have become topic experts, they come back and teach the materials to their home group.
A three column graphic organizer that helps students to think about what they already know about a topic, to decide on what they want to know, and to monitor what they are learning or have learned about the subject.
A statement of what students will know or be able to do. Dr. Marzano suggests two formats, one for procedural knowledge or strategies, skills, and processes (represented as: "Students will be able to ..."), and one for declarative Once teachers develop an awareness that the focus of a learning goal is declarative knowledge it is appropriate to set aside the convention of using the verb understand and use more specific verbs, such as describe, knowledge or information (represented as: "Students will understand..."). explain, identify, etc.
Visual Representation of the four domains
Parts of a lesson, each of which has important characteristics. Each segment contains different roles for teachers and students. Each segment has multiple indicators, which can be successfully met by a variety of actions. The Marzano framework contains three general categories of lesson segments: lesson segments addressing content, lesson segments enacted on the spot, and lesson segments involving routine events. The ten design questions are organized under each segment.
An instructional pace that maintains high levels of student engagement
Low Expectancy Students:
Those students a teacher does not expect to perform well for one reason or another. Teachers can have low expectations because of a student's ethnicity, socio-economic status, previous teacher perceptions, and/or school records. Teachers must actively seek to behave in a manner that is not controlled by biased patterns.
Set of interacting instructional strategies; common components of macro-strategies are summarizing, note-taking, nonlinguistic representation, etc.
Guided practice sessions provided to students frequently over time.
A friendly controversy technique to engage students in sharing their opinion on an issue related to the content being addressed in an upcoming unit of instruction. For example, before an upcoming unit on global warming, a teacher may engage students in a mini-debate about the imminent danger and how quickly action should be taken.
To oversee, supervise, or regulate students' depth of understanding of new content
Interacting in groups helps students get multiple reference points for learning new content. It allows students to see how others process information and it allows each student to see how others react to his/her processing of information.
Mental images associated with one's experiences; for example, a student who has studied and understands the defining characteristics of the cell will have mental images associated with that information.
Non-verbal Behavior (Indications):
A teacher's physical actions are interpreted by students as indications of the teacher's mood and attitude toward students. Marzano suggests that there are certain non-verbal behaviors every teacher should unconsciously practice and engage in: smile at students at appropriate times, forms of encouragement, look students in the eye when addressing them, appropriate physical proximity to communicate concern but not invade personal space, and look interested in what students are saying.
Note-taking is closely related to summarizing in that it requires students to translate information for a critical input experience into their own abbreviated form.
When a teacher changes an instructional plan as a result of student feedback and explicitly shares that decision to shift plans with students.
Physical movement refers to any activity that allows students to move their body position. Physical movement enhances student engagement because it increases energy. Some examples of appropriate physical movement to engage students are: stand and stretch, body representation, give one-get one, vote with your feet.
Dialogue that engages students using appropriate humor or levity.
Any activity that starts students thinking about the content they will encounter in a critical input experience.
Probing Incorrect Answers:
Interactions that allow the teacher to acknowledge what the student knows and delve more deeply into what the student does not understand. These interactions also communicate to students that their response is valued. Rephrasing and breaking complex questions into smaller parts are two probing strategies a teacher could use.
Questions intended to provoke deeper thought about an issue at hand
Skills, strategies, and processes
Reciprocal teaching refers to an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teacher and students regarding segments of text. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue.
When students are not attending to the instructional activities occurring in class they need to be re-engaged. Five areas can provide useful insights into how teachers might increase student engagement: high energy, use of physical activity, maintaining a lively pace, enthusiasm, and intensity; use of academic games and puzzles; the self-system, which controls what we decide to attend to; mild pressure during questioning activities; and mild controversy and competition, through use of mini-debates and inconsequential competition.
A technique for engaging students and obtaining group feedback. When a teacher asks a question, each student in the class records their response individually; on a cue from the teacher, the students hold up their response cards. The teacher uses the group feedback from the response cards to guide subsequent interactions with students.
Linking or chaining student responses. Response chaining begins by asking a question to which a specific student responds. The teacher then asks the class as a whole to vote regarding the accuracy of the response, using three options: correct, partially correct, or incorrect. If the response is correct, a new question is posed; if it is partially incorrect or wholly incorrect, fellow students make the necessary changes until the original response is rendered correct. A new question follows this refinement process.
To peer out at, or observe repeatedly or sweepingly, in the classroom; to survey
Student Response System:
An electronic system that provides educators with the ability to actively engage students and easily assess student achievement using a hand-held device
The student's creation of a personalized, condensed account of the information gleaned from a critical input experience
Verbal Behavior (Indications):
In order to show low expectancy students that they are respected and valued, a teacher should consciously and systematically engage in the following behaviors: engage in playful dialogue when appropriate, demonstrate gratitude for students' responses by thanking them for their efforts, point out what is correct and incorrect about student responses, and restate the question.
Vote With Your Feet:
An activity that involves physical movement, in which the teacher posts three to four signs in the corners of the room and asks students to gather around the one that: best approximates their thinking, represents a topic they want to know more about, or indicates whether they feel a response is incorrect, partially correct, or correct. Student can also move in and out of discussion using this technique.
An aspect of effective questioning, this term refers to the amount of time a teacher waits for a student or students to respond to a question. Students should be allowed adequate processing time before being expected to respond.
Expects students to learn
3.4.01 Holds high achievement expectations for
3.4.02 Communicates to students the measurements and criteria for
attaining learning objectives
3.4.03 Sets goals for
meeting standards, gains in learning, or both
3.4.04 Holds all students accountable for
participating in learning activities and attaining goals
3.4.05 Holds all students accountable for
completing high quality work (class work or homework)
3.4.06 Teaches that effort is necessary for
success in attaining rigorous standards
Involves parents and guardians in supporting the instructional program
3.5.01 Involves parents and guardians in
monitoring their child's academic progress and homework
3.5.02 Alerts parents and guardians to
the educational benefits of leisure reading
3.5.03 Informs parents and guardians of
child's assessment results and progress
Routinely provides students feedback and reinforcement regarding their learning progress
3.3.01 Indicates approval
for correct responses
3.3.02 Follows correct answers with
new questions to maintain momentum
3.3.03 When students are correct but uncertain,
asks students clarifying questions to ensure understanding
3.3.04 When students give incorrect responses, gives
immediate corrective feedback depending on the type of student mistake made (whether by mistake of fact, concept, or rule) including: modeling the correct answer, asking simpler questions, providing hints or processes or rules to determine the answer, asking student to explain his/her answer
3.3.05 Provides consequences on homework that helps students
assess their progress with respect to goals and to understand and correct errors or misconceptions
3.3.06 Informs students of what they need to do to
earn recognition or rewards
incentives to students
3.3.08 Provides feedback that is
meaningful (e.g. specific, accurate, and important)
3.3.09 Avoids embarrassing, insulting, or demeaning students when
Gives high-needs students extra time and instruction they need to succeed
4.3.01 Develops plans to accommodate students'
4.3.02 Provides struggling students with extra
time, instruction, and encouragement
4.3.03 Seeks expertise and help from other professionals when
individual students require special provisions
Monitors student progress closely
4.1.01 Aligns assessments to
taught objectives and lesson content
4.1.02 Uses ongoing assessment to
monitor and guide student learning aligned with curriculum goals
4.1.03 Monitors procedures to check on student progress during:
cooperative work groups (with informal or formal checklists, performance evaluations, papers, or projects); independent work periods (circulating to check students' work); teacher-directed instruction (monitoring verbal responses)
4.1.04 Uses information from assessments to evaluate student progress and inform instructional planning to do the following:
determine what students have learned/not learned; identify patterns of mistakes; ensure students can generalize knowledge to new examples, tasks, material, and problems; make adjustments in time and corrective remedies & in instructional materials or teaching plans; identify learners' special needs that may require additional time or corrective remedies
Purpose of Assessment
To identify the whole group's and individual student's strengths and weaknesses with respect to the curriculum so that the teacher can have access to the best information before making any instructional decisions, To inform parents and guardians about their children so they can help them and make informed decisions as to their future.
To promote the concept of cyclic and continual student learning as exemplified by the model:
assessment → instruction → assessment → instruction → assessment....
Domain 4 1 01 Aligns Assessments to taught objectives and lesson content
To present personalized student data so that the teacher or institution can give a grade that is linked with an award, such as a degree, license, or certificate
Tests, quizzes, reports, papers, recitals, and competitions. Designed to add up or "sum" the amount of knowledge that the test-taker demonstrates. They are considered "assessments of learning."
For teachers, this is usually given at the end of a unit of study, such as a chapter, semester, or year, for the purpose of student evaluation and assigning a grade. "How well did the students learn the material? Was the instruction effective?
Domain 4 1 02 Uses ongoing assessments to monitor and guide students learning aligned with curriculum goals.
Assessments that are a common form of measurement and are based on the "formation" of a concept.
Constructive feedback and leads to more personalized student practice followed by more personalized feedback. The loop continues until the desired level of student mastery is reached.
Can also be defined as the diagnostic use of assessments to provide feedback to teachers and students for the purpose of providing better instruction so that individual students may reach proficiency.
Domain 4 1 03 Monitors procedures to check on students progress:
During group work, lab activities uses informal or formal checklists, performance evaluations, papers or projects. During dependent work, circulates around room to check student's work, and during teacher-directed instruction while monitors verbal responses.
Assessment in which the student is compared to his best previous attempt within the same curricular concepts. It is also known as a "profiling" type of test.
Draw characteristics from both summative and formative assessments.
Students are able to compare their results with their existing "personal best" within that domain.
Assessment is one that looks back on prior student learning and provides data that connects to new learning.
Allows a teacher to make judgments regarding how well a student is performing or is likely to perform on a particular curricular topic.
Domain 4 1 .04 Determines what the student have learned and not learned.
Identify patterns, students know how to generalize knowledge to new examples.
Identifies learners' special needs, that may require additional time or corrective remedies.
Criterion Referenced Assessments
A criterion-referenced assessment is one that measures students' success in reference to defined standards, or criteria.
A criterion-referenced test is typically utilized in the classroom to determine how well students have mastered a particular curricular unit or standard and the students' scores will reflect their level of mastery.
The results of a criterion-referenced assessment are not determined by how well a student scored in relation to the other students taking the same exam. However, criterion-referenced assessment may be used to compare students' results by criterion if they completed the same exam, such as a statewide exam in a particular subject area.
Domain 4 2 .01 Understands the purpose and use of educational test; (norm referenced, criterion referenced, performance assessments and portfolios).
Criterion Referenced Assessments - continued
A criterion-referenced assessment also allows the teacher to clearly define the objectives and goals for the students and create instructional ladders or steps for each student to reach those expectations. The teacher should make the goals as obvious as possible and note their importance. Teachers should also provide their students with an understanding of criterion-referenced tests if they are unaccustomed to taking them. Once the goal is clearly understood by the students, they can assist in the development and implementation of instructional activities. In essence, they will know where they are and where they have to be to reach mastery, so it becomes a matter of connecting the dots.
Norm Referenced Assessments
A norm-referenced assessment, which is also known as a cohort-referenced assessment, does not measure student success against a defined standard or criteria, but against the achievement of the other students who took the test.
This is also known as "grading on the curve" or "curving" the test results. When curving the test results, the top scoring students always get an "A" (or some other indication of a high mark) and the rest of the students receive scores based on how well they scored on the assessment relative to the top scoring students.
That way, no matter how well or poorly the students demonstrated achievement, a set number or percentage of the students, such as 15% of the class, will always score an "A," a set number or percentage will receive a "B," and so on. Thus, the results of norm-referenced assessments rank students in comparison to other students who took the same test. The IQ test is one of the best known norm-referenced assessments.
Domain 4 2 .05 Understanding and uses of common assessment terminology to interpret test results, the differences between percentage and percentile; aggregated and disaggregated data: Norm-referenced score and criterion-referenced score; achievement and aptitude tests, to teach and diagnosing students performance.
Norm Referenced Assessments - continued
Teachers use norm-referenced tests because of several unique benefits. First, norm-referenced tests are considered more fair or compassionate because they guarantee that a prescribed number of students will be successful regardless of the ability of the students, teacher or institution.
It is well known that students and parents of students who score well in a particular class will have very few negative comments to make.
Thus, curving scores can minimize problems for the teacher.
Norm-referenced tests are also useful whenever the teacher wants the students to understand how their scores compared to the remainder of the cohort who took the same assessment. In some cases, this is very motivational for the students. The teacher can also use a series of norm-referenced tests to move students toward a standard in such a way that the students do not feel hopeless or defeated based on the results of the test.
Norm Referenced Assessments - continued
Recently norm-referenced tests have received criticism. By definition, a norm-referenced assessment does not measure achievement with respect to a standard, so the assessment is seldom linked to lesson planning or mastery learning. Teachers can curve a benchmark test showing how well the class is progressing and, after the test, the teacher can begin the next unit of study regardless of how well the students performed.
With norm-referenced tests, it is not uncommon to find that students will be unwilling to work together or cooperate to help other students learn. From a student's perspective, it may seem disadvantageous to help another student in the same cohort. This type of behavior is obviously not very helpful in promoting the overall success of the class.
In response to No Child Left Behind and high stakes testing, teachers have moved away from a reliance on norm-referenced tests. With the loss of the protective umbrella provided by norm-referenced tests, teachers and schools have developed better pedagogy to differentiate instruction so that all students can learn.
Selected response (also known as multiple choice) questions are among the most common question or item types. A selected response question asks the students to select the correct answer from a series of possible correct answers in response to an introductory statement, which is also called a stem.
Typically the students are confronted with four or five possible answers and their task is to select the correct one instead of having to generate a response from memory. Selected response questions are considered objective assessments because there is only one correct answer.
Domain 4 2 .02 Understanding the purpose and uses of different items types, Multiple-chose, constructed response format.
Selected response - continued
•They are easy to score. Multiple choice questions have become very popular because of the proliferation of machine scoring. Computer scoring also allows for an advanced statistical analysis of the data. This type of analysis will indicate areas of students' strengths and weaknesses as well as provide an item analysis for each question.
•Teachers can create different degrees of difficulty. For instance, the teacher can include simple recall or memorization questions while also including more difficult questions that require a synthesis or evaluation of facts or details.
•Distractors (meaning the wrong answer choices) can be worded to indicate the students' misconceptions. This can help teachers determine if a particular concept is well understood and isolate any areas or concepts that may be confusing or troublesome for the students.
•Multiple choice short quizzes make good formative assessments to quickly determine if the students are progressing at an acceptable level.
Selected response - continued
•Teachers can include a range of questions that assess an entire curricular unit in both a summative and formative style.
•Teachers can minimize the disadvantage felt by poor readers or non-English speaking students by adjusting the question stem.
True or false
True or false questions are a common type of question. A question of this type is one in which the student is required to determine whether the question stem or statement is a falsification or not.
Like multiple choice questions, true or false questions are also considered objective assessments because there is only one correct answer. This type of exam is not considered very reliable or informative since the students have a 50-50 chance of guessing the correct answer.
Domain 4 2 .03 Can apply general testing concepts,(e.g. reliability, validity and standard error of measurement.
Matching type questions are objective assessments that require a student to correctly identify, link, or "match" the relationship between two items.
Typically matching questions provide two sets of items for the students to analyze. Virtually any items can be used to create a matching question, but typical examples include vocabulary words and definitions, cause and effect relationships, tools/instruments and their uses, or dates and events.
Matching questions are able to cover expansive amounts of curriculum while minimizing students' ability to guess correctly compared to traditional multiple choice questions. The likelihood of guessing a correct answer is decreased as the length of the item sets increases. It can be further decreased when one of the item sets is larger than the other or by allowing answers to be used more than once. Therefore, the students cannot better their chances just by eliminating possible answers from the answer pool.
Essay or constructed response
Most students think essay-type questions are the most difficult because the student has to generate the correct answer since it is not given somewhere in the question stem. Essays and constructed responses are considered subjective assessments because there is more than one correct answer or more than one way to express the correct answer. They require students to think through their answer and perhaps write a rough draft before writing a final draft. Students are often prompted to study more in preparation for an essay-type exam.
Lab sets or ordered sets
A lab set (which is also known as an ordered set or a problem set) is a series of questions based upon and related to a single stimulus.
The types of stimuli vary but generally fall into one of the following categories: mathematical solutions, technical reading passages, graphics or illustrations, or processes or experiments.
For instance, a student may be required to read a narrative that describes a laboratory investigation. The questions that follow may ask the students to identify the purpose, the independent variable, the control, all sources of error, and predict the type of graph needed to correctly display the data while using the information from the passage. Typically lab sets are used by science and mathematics teachers although their usefulness should extend into other disciplines.
Oral exams have long been the domain of foreign language and reading teachers, but should be considered as an option for almost all subject areas.
If a teacher wants to know how much or to what extent a student understands a curricular topic, one of the best ways is to ask the student directly. This may be as informal as a question in class or a more formal arrangement where the questions are prepared in advance and may require models to successfully respond to the exam. The teacher also has the opportunity to ask follow-up questions to pursue answers to a deeper level and to clarify student thinking.
Sets clear standards for classroom conduct and applies them fairly and consistently
3.2.01 Establishes clear standards of conduct
that students are required to meet
3.2.02 Arranges classroom so
teachers can gain proximity to all students
3.2.03 Provides positive feedback that is
specific, descriptive, accurate, and meaningful
3.2.04 Selects from a repertoire of correction techniques for
early stage misbehavior (i.e. non-chronic), such as: using proximity (moving closer to the student), using reprimand (i.e. brief, proximate, state positive expectation, avoids asking a question, emotionally supportive or neutral); using eye contact and/or discussion; using humor
3.2.05 Implements corrective techniques for common rule violations, such as:
counting, charts, debriefing, penalties (loss of points, time owed, demerits), using time out, using restitution, making parental contacts
3.2.06 Determines educational reasons for
chronic student misbehavior
3.2.07 Once the educational reason for the misbehavior is known, design
plan to help meet students' needs in positive ways
3.2.08 Chooses corrective techniques for chronic misbehavior
and implements them calmly, consistently, immediately, and respectfully
Domain 2, Topic 2
Provides Clear & Focused Instruction
2.2.01 Assesses students to decide where and how to begin instruction
based on students' prior knowledge and prerequisite skills
2.2.02 Presents material
in a logical sequence
2.2.03 Presents new content
in small steps
2.2.04 Demonstrates the steps
for defining concepts, applying rules, and solving problems
2.2.05 Focuses on learning objectives
without disrupting continuity by digressing
2.2.06 Teaches vocabulary
required for mastery of the subject matter
2.2.07 Presents sufficient, varied, systematic examples, non-examples, problems, or materials in order for students to master critical concepts.
So students grasp relationships, make predictions, debate alternative approaches to problems, or otherwise consider the content's implications or applications.
2.2.08 Determines that students have mastered material in lesson
before introducing new idea
2.2.09 Identifies mistake patterns or knowledge gaps
in student responses
2.2.10 Systematically reduces or withdraws assistance
as students become proficient
2.2.11 Utilizes metaphors and analogies
to communicate key ideas
2.2.12 Provides frequent and varied opportunities for students
to practice new skills, apply new knowledge, or both
2.2.13 Provides students with ample opportunities
to solve similar problems
2.2.14 Uses both examples and non-examples (e.g. of concepts)
so those students can induce the defining features
2.2.15 Provides opportunities for students to actively participate through questions, share task-related observations or experiences,
compare opinions to deepen their appreciation of what they have learned and how it relates to their lives outside school
2.2.16 Provides opportunities for students to explain in their own words how individual elements are connected in a network of related content
and connect it (the new content) to their prior knowledge
2.2.17 Provides closure
to lesson (e.g. reviewing main points, stressing concepts, and previewing next lesson)
2.2.18 Knows the different purposes of various instructive methods
and how and when to use them, including whole class, cooperative, small group, and tutoring
2.2.19 When using whole class instruction, implements its design principles by:
establishing whole class instruction based on learning objective; establishing seating arrangements so all students can see and hear; monitoring student attention (teacher eye contact, proximity, questions); ensuring that students receive the assistance they need to learn successfully
2.2.20 When using small-groups, implement principles of design by:
establishing cooperative workgroups that are based on lesson objectives; placing students in small groups on the basis of diagnostic information for short-term learning activities; regrouping students when they are ready; setting up peer tutoring and peer evaluation groups to use time effectively; when working with small groups, stays aware of and makes sure not to spend excessive time away from remainder of class
2.2.21 Holds members of cooperative work groups or small groups
individually responsible for work performance
Uses Effective Questioning Techniques
2.3.01 Suits questions
to the knowledge and skills of students
2.3.02 Uses factual and higher order questions
to further student learning
2.3.03 Uses open-ended higher-cognitive questions
that call for students to apply, analyze, synthesize, or evaluate what they are learning
2.3.04 Provides appropriate wait-time
when asking higher order questions
2.3.05 Promotes discussion on a range
of possible correct answers
2.3.06 Requires students to clarify or justify their assertions
to improve the quality of student responses
2.3.07 When asking questions with a short and specific correct answer,
orchestrates chorale responses to involve all students (e.g., reading word lists, memorizing facts, practicing pronunciation in foreign language)
Understands Testing Concepts
4.2.01 Understands the purpose and use of
educational tests (e.g. norm referenced, criterion referenced, performance assessments, and portfolios)
4.2.02 Understands the purposes and uses of different
item types (e.g. multiple choice, constructed response format)
4.2.03 Can apply general testing concepts, such as:
reliability, validity, and standard error of measurement
4.2.04 Understands and uses general statistical concepts, such as:
mean, mode, median, and standard deviation
4.2.05 Understands and uses common assessment terminology to interpret test results to teaching and diagnosing student performance, such as:
the difference between percentage and percentile; aggregated and disaggregated data; norm-referenced score and criterion-referenced score; achievement and aptitude tests
Makes efficient use of learning time
2.4.01 Paces the lesson to allow time to
develop the most important content in greater depth and according to its difficulty
2.4.02 Arranges schedule to maximize
engagement of all students (e.g. teacher-directed, independent work, group work)
2.4.03 Knows the differences among uses of time:
time allocated to the lesson, the time students are actually engaged in learning, and the time students are effectively learning the key objectives
2.4.04 Arranges classroom space to ensure
monitoring of all students' engagement
2.4.05 Extends learning through
homework assignments that are relevant to the lessons being learned
2.4.06 Extends learning time through homework that is
appropriate in length and difficulty
Topic 5: Builds Students' Study Skills (only one standard in this topic)
Instructs students about when and how to use study skills such as: repeating material to remember it more effectively; outline material to structure and remember it; self-monitoring and self-regulating to maintain concentration and task focus; minimizing performance anxiety and fear of failure
1A demonstrating knowledge of content and pedagogy.
Knowledge of content and the structure of the discipline.
Knowledge of prerequisite relationships
Knowledge of content-related pedagogy.
1B demonstrating knowledge of students
Knowledge of child and adolescent development
Knowledge of the learning process
Knowledge of students' skills, knowledge, and language proficiency
Knowledge of students' interests and cultural heritage
Knowledge of students' special needs.
1C setting instructional outcomes
Value, sequence and alignment
Suitability for diverse learners
1D demonstrating knowledge of resources
Resources for classroom use
Resources to extend content knowledge and pedagogy
Resources for students
1E Designing coherent instruction
Instructional materials and resources
Lesson and unit structure
1F designing student assessment
Congruence with instructional outcomes
Criteria and standards
Design of formative assessments
Use for planning
Establishes smooth, efficient classroom routines
3.1.01 Develops and teaches clear class rules
during the first week of school
3.1.02 Enforces rules
and re-teaches as necessary
3.1.03 Designs & establishes procedures and routines for classroom activities
prior to the beginning of the school year, e.g., lining up, attendance, lunch, passing out papers, pencil sharpening, restroom, entry and exit, tardiness, hall passes, attention signal
3.1.04 Presents clear expectations
concerning classroom behavior
3.1.05 Presents expectations regarding participation in lessons and learning activities
such as teacher-directed instruction, cooperative learning, and independent work (class work and homework)
3.1.06 Enforces expectations about class behavior
in a consistent manner
3.1.07 Begins each class
promptly and purposefully
3.1.08 Avoids unnecessary delays and pauses during lessons
such as stopping to consult a manual or locate an item needed for display or demonstration
3.1.09 Teaches students procedures for carrying out recurring instructional activities, e.g.,
participating in whole-class lessons, engaging in productive discourse with classmates; collaborating in pairs or small groups; storing and handling equipment; managing learning, completing assignments on time; knowing when and how to get help
3.1.10 Provides explicit instruction (e.g. modeling and practice-
about listening, sharing, and integrating the ideas of others and handling disagreements constructively)
3.1.11 Encourage student effort by
focusing on the positive aspects of students' performance
Planning and Preparation
Teacher designs learning activities, lesson plans, instructional materials
Teacher has high expectations, procedures, and class policy posted. Teacher has materials and resources ready. Teacher is alert to student behavior at all times.
Teacher asks high level questions. All students are engaged in their learning activities. Student learning is taking place. Teacher uses formative assessment.
Teacher reflects on the lesson and thinks about what he/she could do different. Teacher maintains proper documentation on supplies and equipment. Teacher communicates with families through class newsletters, weebly's, etc.
Planning and Preparation
1a "demonstrating knowledge of _______"
content and pedagogy
knowledge of students
knowledge of resources
The classroom environment
2a "creating an__________"
environment of respect and rapport
2b "establishing a ________"
culture for learning
2c "managing _____"
3a "communicating with _____"
questioning and discussion techniques
engaging students in learning
assessment in learning
3e "demonstrating __________"
flexibility and responsiveness
4a "reflecting on _____"
4b "maintaining _____"
4c "communicating with ____"
4d "participating in a ______"
4e "growing and developing _____"
4f "showing _______"
Module # 1
Defineing learning goals or activities
Module # 2
Engaging students in the learning Process
The reinforcing of effort and providing of recognition for student accomplishments.
Procedures executed at the level of automaticity that minimize disruption and maximize instructional time.
A statement of what students will know or be able to do.
An attempt to create a continuum that articulates distinct levels of knowledge and skill relative to a specific topic.
Tracking Student Progress
This practice allows teachers to better approximate a student's true score at the end of a particular interval of time.
Presenting small parts of new material at a given time.
The amount of time a teacher waits for a student's response to a question.
Games or activities used to engage students.
The process of engaging students in dialogue regarding topics about which they have differing opinions.
An instructional pace that maintains high levels of student engagement.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Marzano Evaluation Model
Elements of the Marzano Teacher Evaluation Model
Educational Psychology - Woolfolk
What Works In Schools Robert J. Marzano
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