403. Legal in every state in America.
26% of US parents report spanking their children frequently.
Two views:one against spanking and one that says it can be used effectively.
Reasons to avoid spanking.
1. it presents children with an out of control model for handling stressful situations.
2. Punishment can instill fear, rage, or avoidance.
3. It tells children what not to do rather than what to do.
4. Punishment can be abusive.
Much of the evidence for the negative effects of spanking is based on studies in which parents acted abusively. Other studies show punishment in a calm reason manor benefits development. Only severe spanking compared unfavorably with other alternative practices for disciplining children 404.
Few studies distinguish between degrees of punishment.
Cultural context effects the positive or negative outcome of spanking. 404
Conclusion on physical punishment. If physical punishment is used it needs to be mild, infrequent, age-appropriate, and used in the context of a positive parent child relationship. 404
Spanking by parents is linked with children's antisocial behavior including cheating, telling lies, being mean to others, bullying, getting into fights, being disobedient. 403
Corporal punishment by parents is associated with higher levels of immediate compliance and aggression and lower levels of moral internalization and mental health. 403
Mothers use of physical punishment is linked to highest rates of aggression in children.
Harsh physical discipline is related to adolescent depression and external problems such as juvenile delinquency.
Marital conflict and individual hostility were linked with the use of physical punishment.
In 2009, approximately 702,000 U.S. children were found to be victims of child abuse - 81% by a parent or parents.
About 1/3 of parents who were abused themselves when they were young abuse their own children
TYPES OF MALTREATMENT
2. Child neglect which is by far the most common form up to three times as often as abuse.
3. Sexual abuse
4. Emotional abuse which is almost always present with the other forms of abuse.
Contributing factors include culture, family and child's developmental characteristics.
406 CONTRIBUTING FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS to maltreatment include:
Child-abuse DEVELOPMENTAL CONSEQUENCES
Poor emotional regulation,
difficulty adapting to school,
psychological problems including depression and delinquency.
NEW RESEARCH suggests that the brains of children who have been abused are significantly different. For example, children who have been physically abused show increased activity in their amygdala, the area of the brain important for feelings and responses to fear
more likely than adolescents who were not maltreated as children to engage in violent romantic relationships, delinquency, sexual risk taking, and substance abuse.
As adults, maltreated children are also at risk for violent behavior toward others and difficulty maintaining healthy intimate relationships
Two treatments effective in reducing child maltreatment are:
1. Home visitation to improve parenting help cope with stress and give increase support to the mother
2. Parent infant psychotherapy focused on improving maternal infant attachment
Effects of maltreatment in adult hood
407. Problems with physical health, mental health, sexual function. Increased risk for diabetes, lung disease, malnutrition, vision problems comp. Difficulty establishing healthy relationships. Risk for violent behavior ,
substance abuse, anxiety, depression.
413. 40% of children in the US experienced divorce.
Children in never divorced families are better adjusted. children from divorced families show poorer adjustment: depression, poor academic achiement, etc.
Effects of divorce on children's development:
academic problems, externalized problems, anxiety, depression, less socially responsible, less competent relationships, more likely to drop out of school, C4 114 for more.
Divorced parents who can maintain a harmonious relationship create better adjusted children. 415
Whether or not parents should stay together for the sake of the children depends. 414. It's staying together results in excessive conflict divorce is advantageous. If diminished resources and increased risks associated with divorce are combined with continued conflict best choice is to continue marriage.
Marital conflict is associated with emotional problems in children.
Factors influencing a child's vulnerability to negative consequences of divorce.
415. Child's personality, temperament, adjustment prior to divorce, gender, custody.