83 terms

Families CP 14

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory
microsystem this would include my family my friends organizations work school that I belong to.

meso system
this would cover links between micro systems such as the connection between family processes and peer relations.

Exosystem.
Influences from another setting that an individual does not experience directly such as how my experience at school might affect the way I parent at home.

macro system
The culture in which an individual lives such as a nation or an ethnic group. Orange county beach community dwellers see also:
Cultural influences & changes in family

Chronosystem
Sociohistorical circumstances such as an increased number of working mothers divorced parents stepparent families in the United States over the last 30 to 40 years. Also the pattern of an event over a life course such as patterns of how divorce plays out over a child's development.

contributions
1. It emphasizes social contexts beyond family.
2. It gives a systematic examination of developmental affects of both macro and micro environmental systems.

BUT:includes no cognitive element
Scaffolding
392 Adjusting the level of parental guidance to fit the child's efforts allowing children to be more skillful then they would be if they relied only on their own abilities,

Peekaboo is an example of scaffolding 393
Reciprocal socialization
The bidirectional process by which children socialize parents just as parents socialize them.
this is a transactional interchange
mutual synchrony
In mutual synchrony each person's behavior depends on the partners previous behavior. scaffolding is an example where a parent responds to a child's behavior with scaffolding which in turn affects child's behavior. 392 peekaboo is an example of scaffolding as mutual synchrony.
Joint attention
393 turn taking and games like peekaboo reflect the development of joint attention by caregiver an infant.
Transactional interchanges
393 The mutual influence process known as reciprocal socialization
dyadic
393 some family subsystems are dyadic involving two people
polyadic
393 some family subsystems are polyadic, involving more than two people.
Parenting and marital relationship links
💕Happily married parents are more sensitive responsive warm and affectionate to children

💕Marital satisfaction leads to good parenting

💕Marriages with more intimacy and better communication are more affectionate to their children

see also divorce - impacts on children

programs that focus on enhancing parenting skills might also benefit from added focus on improving the participants marriage - true 393
Parenting & social competence
393
Mothers who place a higher value on skills such as making friends sharing and leading other children had children who were more assertive prosocial and competent problem solver's.

Children's social competence linked to the beliefs and emotions of their parents 393
Parents who expressed positive emotions have children hi in social competence. Mothers who place a high value on social skills have children who are more prosocial.
Emotion coaching parent
394
Parental sensitivity to children's emotions is related to child's ability to manage emotion in a positive way.
Emotion dismissing parents
394 View their role as to deny ignore or change negative emotions.
Multiple developmental trajectories
394 concept that adults follow one trajectory and children and adolescents another one; understanding how these trajectories mesh is important.


some examples of adult developmental trajectories?
Timing of entry into marriage, cohabitation, parenthood.

some examples of children's developmental trajectories?
Timing of entry into childcare, entry into middle school.

This concept is similar to goodness of fit of temperaments, but is specific to timelime trajectories. The parents are on one trajectory/path, and the child is on a different one. How well the two trajectories/paths line up and follow each other is important to the family system. Many people talk about the "right" time to start a family or have children, and that would fit into this idea of finding compatible trajectories for a child and their parent, although, obviously, planning doesn't always work out!
socialization practices
How do parents socialize children?
394 GRUSEC and DAVIDOV. A domain specific view of parenting emphasizing how parents use different types of relationships in 5 different domains.

five domain specific socialization practices.

protection - 395. If Parent responses help child develop a sense of security and comfort Child develops the ability to respond appropriately to danger and self regulate in distress.

Reciprocity-395. Parent child interactions as equal partners in play develop cooperativeness.

Control-395. This parent /child interaction typically involves conflict when a child misbehaves parents discourage miss behavior and child learns moral and principal behavior.

Guided learning- With parent as teacher and child as student child requires knowledge and skills.

Group participation-By increasing a child's participation cultural practices the child learns to conform to the cultural group and group values that give a sense of social identity.

But even the relationship within a domain can change over time, and more research needs to be done in this area.
protection, socialization in the domain of
395.
If Parent responses help child develop a sense of security and comfort Child develops the ability to respond appropriately to danger and self regulate in distress.
Reciprocity, socialization in the domain of
395. Parent child interactions as equal partners in play develop cooperativeness.
Control, socialization in the domain of
395. This parent /child interaction typically involves conflict when a child misbehaves parents discourage misbehavior and child learns moral and principal behavior.
Guided learning, socialization in the domain of
395. With parent as teacher and child as student child requires knowledge and skills.
Group participation, socialization in the domain of
395. By increasing a child's participation cultural practices the child learns to conform to the cultural group and group values that give a sense of social identity.
GRUSEC
394. see socialization practices
DAVIDOV
394. see socialization practices
Mutual synchrony
392 In mutual synchrony each person's behavior depends on the partners previous behavior.
Reciprocal interaction
392 In a reciprocal interaction the actions of partners can be matched as when one imitates the other such as in mutual smiling.
Cultural influences & changes in family
What are some important social cultural and historical influences that may stimulate changes in families?
395 war immigration transition and way of life.

Some changes in 21st century culture that influence the family.
395 increased longevity of older adults,
movement to urban and suburban areas,
technological advances,
general dissatisfaction and restlessness that may result in divorce,
increasing number of grandparents raising grandchildren,
lack of neighborhood and extended family support systems,
increase in television viewing,
children experiencing a world in which parents are not participants.

see BronfenBrenner's concept of macro system and chronosystem
family, Sociocultural and historical changes
generally, the development of a family is also dependant on social context. Our ideas of what a family should look like has changed over time, and cultural issues such as war, famine, and massive immigration has changed the dynamics of a family.
• Subtle changes in culture can also have a big effect on family development - things like generational differences (the X and Y generations), city development, television, internet, etc.
Bringing home baby project
397. A workshop that helps new parents strengthen marital relationship, understand baby, resolve conflict and develop parenting skills.
parenting in infancy
398. - During infancy, parents focus on routine caregiving
Initial routine caregiving gradually includes more non-caregiving activities such as play and managing behavior.

Transition to parenting:
- Marital relations (and marital satisfaction) often decreases immediately after a child's birth (marital satisfaction often does not go back up until after the children leave the house 18 years later!)
Parenting in early childhood
398.
- During early childhood, parents focus on behavioral issues and autonomy
eating manners learning to dress attention seeking. At age of seven many new issues appear and some of these are carried forward.
Coregulation
398 where control is transferred from parent to child happens gradually up to the age of 12. Parents manage general supervision while children engage in moment to moment self-regulation.
Parenting in middle and late childhood
Adaptations in parenting
398.
Parents spend Half as much time with children age 5 to 12. (more time w/ peers - see cp 15 issues)
Parent serve as gatekeepers and provide scaffolding as children assume more responsibility.
Parents support is important for academic achievement and decision making about out of school activities.

Methods of discipline move away from physical discipline and toward deprivation a privilege appeal to self-esteem guilt and statements of child responsibility.

Coregulation where control is transferred from parent to child happens gradually up to the age of 12. Parents manage general supervision while children engage in moment to moment self-regulation.

Key developmental tasks parents influence: in attaining autonomy is learning to relate to adults outside the family.
Parenting and developmental tasks of childhood
Important developmental tasks of childhood that parents can influence.
Learning to relate to adults outside the family. Ability to make competent decisions in an increasingly independent manner. 399
Parent as manager
399. Parents manage children's experiences and opportunities. Mothers more often than fathers.
- Finds information, makes contacts, helps structure choices, and provides guidance
• Includes:
1) Being proactive and childproofing the environment
2) Using corrective methods when child engages in undesirable behaviors.
- Requires effective monitoring and supervision
infant behavior management
399. Includes
1. proactive childproofing environment so it's safe
2. using correctional methods for undesirable behavior. See chart page 399 for parents methods for managing and correcting undesirable behavior in infants.

main corrective method used by parents by the time in infant is 12 months old?
100% of parents surveyed used diverting attention, Followed by reasoning, ignoring, and negotiating.

discipline change from age 1 to 2?
Parents increase the amount of yelling, slapping the infants hand, and spanking.
childhood & adolescent behavior monitoring
399. Monitoring includes supervising adolescents choice of social setting, activities, and friends.

Increased level of parental monitoring is associated with lower alcohol and marijuana use.

strongest affects were among girls and adolescents with highest risk taking profile.
monitoring behavior
see infant behavior management and
childhood & adolescent behavior monitoring 399
managing behavior
see infant behavior management and
childhood & adolescent behavior monitoring 399

How did family management practices relate to students grades and self responsibility as well as school related problems?
Family management practices relate positively to grades, negatively to school related problems.

The MOST IMPORTANT FAMILY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES include: maintaining a structured environment with routines for homework, chores and bedtime as well as monitoring behavior.
Authoritarian parenting
401. A restrictive punitive style exerting firm limits and controls and little verbal exchange. Associated with child's social incompetence, lack of initiative, weak communication skills.

see Asian childrearing practices and authoritarian parenting style
402. Distinct from the domineering control the style reflects parental concern and involvement conceptualized as a type of training. Parental control goals of perseverance, working hard, obedience, and sensitivity to parents wishes contributed to Asian-American children's high academic achievements.
Baumrind's parenting styles
Parental actions of acceptance and responsiveness on one hand and demand and control on the other combine to create Baumrind's 4 classifications of parenting. 402.
401. Authoritarian parenting
Authoritative parenting
Neglectful parenting
Indulgent parenting

Which style of parenting produces socially competent children?
Authoritative parenting

see also cultural variations in style
Cultural issues impact outcomes of the various styles
Neglectful parenting
401. Parent is uninvolved. Associated with children's social incompetence, lack of self-control, and poor self-esteem.
Authoritative parenting
401. Encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls, extensive verbal give-and-take allowed, parents warm and nurturant. Associated with children's social competence, achievement orientation, and self-reliance. Context determines outcomes in authoritarian parenting however - in traditional Asian child rearing, Latino child rearing, and African-American, outcomes of the authoritarian style are more positive. 402

produces socially competent children

authoritative parenting style is linked with competence on the part of the child across ethnic groups social strata, cultures, and family structure. 402
Indulgent parenting
401. A style in which parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them. Associated with children social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control, and a lack of respect for others.
Asian childrearing practices
402. Distinct from the domineering control the style reflects parental concern and involvement conceptualized as a type of training. Parental control goals of perseverance, working hard, obedience, and sensitivity to parents wishes contributed to Asian-American children's high academic achievements.

Asian American parents often take on traditional Asian parenting practices that are most similar to authoritarian styles. The "tiger mom" stereotype most closely resembles the authoritarian parenting style, although some researchers argue that it may be considered a separate classification instead.
Latino parenting style
402. Resembles authoritarian style but maybe positive rather than punitive encourages the development of a self and identity embedded in the family.
Corporeal punishment in different countries
403. Five point scale used to assess attitudes toward corporeal punishment scores closer to one indicated an attitude against its use and scores closer to five suggested an attitude favoring its use.

Cultural context effects the positive or negative outcome of spanking. 404
Spanking/corporal punishment
403. Legal in every state in America.
26% of US parents report spanking their children frequently.
Two views:one against spanking and one that says it can be used effectively.
Reasons to avoid spanking.
1. it presents children with an out of control model for handling stressful situations.
2. Punishment can instill fear, rage, or avoidance.
3. It tells children what not to do rather than what to do.
4. Punishment can be abusive.

Much of the evidence for the negative effects of spanking is based on studies in which parents acted abusively. Other studies show punishment in a calm reason manor benefits development. Only severe spanking compared unfavorably with other alternative practices for disciplining children 404.

Few studies distinguish between degrees of punishment.

Cultural context effects the positive or negative outcome of spanking. 404

Conclusion on physical punishment. If physical punishment is used it needs to be mild, infrequent, age-appropriate, and used in the context of a positive parent child relationship. 404

Spanking by parents is linked with children's antisocial behavior including cheating, telling lies, being mean to others, bullying, getting into fights, being disobedient. 403

Corporal punishment by parents is associated with higher levels of immediate compliance and aggression and lower levels of moral internalization and mental health. 403

Mothers use of physical punishment is linked to highest rates of aggression in children.

Harsh physical discipline is related to adolescent depression and external problems such as juvenile delinquency.

Marital conflict and individual hostility were linked with the use of physical punishment.
corporal punishment
see spanking
Corporal punishment is associated with higher levels of immediate compliance and aggression by the children.
• Harsh physical discipline is related to adolescent depression and externalizing problems
punishment
see spanking
403 most child psychologists recommend handling children's misbehavior by reasoning with the child especially explaining the consequences of child's actions to others. Also using timeout in which child is removed from a setting that offers positive reinforcement such as taking away TV viewing for specific time.

Corporal punishment is associated with higher levels of immediate compliance and aggression by the children.
• Harsh physical discipline is related to adolescent depression and externalizing problems
Coparenting
404. The support parents provide one another in jointly raising a child.
Lack of cooperation between parents put children at risk for problems.
- It is not easy to balance parenting styles within a family, as each parent brings their own ideas and goals.
Child maltreatment
In 2009, approximately 702,000 U.S. children were found to be victims of child abuse - 81% by a parent or parents.

About 1/3 of parents who were abused themselves when they were young abuse their own children

406.
TYPES OF MALTREATMENT
1.Physical abuse
2. Child neglect which is by far the most common form up to three times as often as abuse.
3. Sexual abuse
4. Emotional abuse which is almost always present with the other forms of abuse.

Contributing factors include culture, family and child's developmental characteristics.

406 CONTRIBUTING FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS to maltreatment include:
parenting stress,
substance-abuse,
social isolation,
single parenting,
poverty.

Child-abuse DEVELOPMENTAL CONSEQUENCES
406.
Poor emotional regulation,
attachment problems,
peer relations,
difficulty adapting to school,
psychological problems including depression and delinquency.

NEW RESEARCH suggests that the brains of children who have been abused are significantly different. For example, children who have been physically abused show increased activity in their amygdala, the area of the brain important for feelings and responses to fear

IN ADOLESCENTS
more likely than adolescents who were not maltreated as children to engage in violent romantic relationships, delinquency, sexual risk taking, and substance abuse.

AS ADULTS
As adults, maltreated children are also at risk for violent behavior toward others and difficulty maintaining healthy intimate relationships

Two treatments effective in reducing child maltreatment are:
1. Home visitation to improve parenting help cope with stress and give increase support to the mother
2. Parent infant psychotherapy focused on improving maternal infant attachment
407

Effects of maltreatment in adult hood
407. Problems with physical health, mental health, sexual function. Increased risk for diabetes, lung disease, malnutrition, vision problems comp. Difficulty establishing healthy relationships. Risk for violent behavior ,
substance abuse, anxiety, depression.
physical abuse
406. see child maltreatment
child abuse
see child maltreatment
child maltreatment, reducing
Two treatments effective in reducing child maltreatment are:
1. Home visitation to improve parenting help cope with stress and give increase support to the mother
2. Parent infant psychotherapy focused on improving maternal infant attachment
407
adolescent/parent relationships
407 two important aspects are autonomy /attachment and conflict.

Autonomy
- Children increase desire for autonomy as they get older.
- Adolescents acquire the ability to make mature dcisions on their own
- Boys are given more independence than girls throughout adolescence.

• Attachment
- Secure attachments in adolescence involve positive peer relations and adolescent's emotion regulation capacities

407. Adolescents desire to spend more time with peers and demonstrate that they are responsible for their own successes and failures.
Boys are given more independent than girls.

Young adolescents perception that their parents promoted more psychological AUTONOMY & less psychological control predicted fewer depressive symptoms two years later.

408. The most consistent outcomes in secure ATTACHMENT involve positive peer relations and development of emotion regulation capacities.

Securely attached at 14 years of age were more likely to report an exclusive relationship, comfortable with intimacy, & achieved increase in financial independence at 21 years of age.

Parent adolescent conflict
408. Most conflict is moderate & revolves around every day events of life, rarely major issues such as drugs or delinquency. These minor conflicts should be viewed as a positive development facilitating adolescent transition to being an autonomous individual. When there is a high degree of conflict, it is typically associated with various adolescent problems.

Immigrant families and adolescent parent conflict

409. Immigrant children acculturate more quickly than parents. Adolescent immigrants often expect more autonomy and romantic relationships which is likely to increase conflict although it often goes unexpressed.

Acculturation based conflict
409. Immigrant adolescents may feel parents want them to give a personal interest for the sake of the family.
autonomy in adolescents
407.
Children increase desire for autonomy as they get older.
Adolescents desire to spend more time with peers and demonstrate that they are responsible for their own successes and failures.
Boys are given more independent than girls.

Young adolescents perception that their parents promoted more psychological autonomy & less psychological control predicted fewer depressive symptoms two years later.
Attachment in adolescents
408. The most consistent outcomes insecure attachment involve positive peer relations and development of emotion regulation capacities.

Securely attached at 14 years of age were more likely to report an exclusive relationship, comfortable with intimacy, & achieved increase in financial independence at 21 years of age.
conflict, parent/adolescent
Stereotypes or ideas of parent-adolescent conflict, are, on average, not as terrible as TV or G. Stanley Hall describes.

Parent/adolescent conflict

Mostconflictduringearlyadolescencebutthen tapers off toward the end of adolescence.

408. Most conflict is moderate & revolves around every day events of life, rarely major issues such as drugs or delinquency. These minor conflicts should be viewed as a positive development facilitating adolescent transition to being an autonomous individual. When there is a high degree of conflict, it is typically associated with various adolescent problems.

Cross-cultural studies reveal that parent-adolescent conflict is lower in some countries than in the U.S., such as in Japan and India

Immigrant families and adolescent parent conflict

409. Immigrant children acculturate more quickly than parents. Adolescent immigrants often expect more autonomy and romantic relationships which is likely to increase conflict although it often goes unexpressed.

Acculturation based conflict
409. Immigrant adolescents may feel parents want them to give a personal interest for the sake of the family.

The conflicts between parent and adolescent might be a good way for a child to learn negotiation as they transition to becoming more independent. One of the main features of authoritative parenting styles is the give and take that occurs between the child and the adult. This is a good way for children to learn to negotiate and work with others.

• Attachment figures and support systems help adolescents explore a more complex social world.

Prolonged intense conflict is associated with adolescent problems such as:
- Movement out of the home
- Juvenile delinquency
- School dropout
- Pregnancy and early marriage - Membership in religious cults - Drug abuse
Intergenerational relationships
409
Connections between generations play an important role in development
Female relationships across generations are closer than males.
Supportive family environments in childhood links to more positive relationships between parent and child when children are over 26 years of age.
Children of divorced parents are disproportionately likely to get a divorce.
Children of smokers are more likely to smoke.
Intergenerational transmission of conduct disorder exist across three generations.
Immigrant families and adolescent parent conflict
see conflict parent/adolescent
acculturation & conflict
409. Immigrant children acculturate more quickly than parents. Adolescent immigrants often expect more autonomy and romantic relationships which is likely to increase conflict although it often goes unexpressed.

Acculturation based conflict
409. Immigrant adolescents may feel parents want them to give a personal interest for the sake of the family.
sibling conflict
410. Sibling conflict with linked to an increase in children's depressive symptoms. Increase in sibling intimacy related to an increase in children's pier competence.
Conflict in sibling relationships often stems from issues of equality,fairness, And invasion of one's personal domain.

AND PARENTS
How do you parents handle sibling conflict?
In one of three ways;
The intervene,
they admonish or threatened,
they do nothing at all.
Experts say not intervening is not a good strategy. Training parents to mediate sibling disputes increases children's understanding of conflicts and reduces sibling conflict.
parenting sibling conflict
see sibling conflict
More fun with sisters and brothers
411. A program to teach siblings positive directions.
sibling relationships
characteristics of sibling relationships
(see also sibling conflict)

3 characteristics of sibling relationships - Emotional quality of the relationship
- Familiarity and intimacy of the relationship - Variation in sibling relationships

411.
Siblings often have mixed feelings toward one another
The intimacy of siblings can either support or tease and undermine one another.
Some siblings describe relationships more positively than others.

High sibling conflict is linked to negative outcomes for adolescents through both the conflict and through direct modeling of the siblings behavior.

Birth order
411. Birth order is shown to have limited ability to predict behavior when compared to other factors
Birth order
411. Birth order is shown to have limited ability to predict behavior when compared to other factors

has been associated with certain personality characteristics.
- First born children are more likely to be intelligence, have higher achievement, and be more conscientious.
- Later born children are more rebellious and liberal.
• Can be due to differences in interactions with parents and siblings
working parents
413. How do working parents impact children's development?
few links have been found between mothers working status and children's cognitive and social emotional development.

Children whose mothers were employed early in life had better socioemotional functioning then peers whose mothers stayed home.

Children's development is affected more strongly by the nature of parents work then whether or not a parent is employed.

Children of working mothers engage in less gender stereotyping. 413
Crouter, Ann
413. Describe how parents bring experiences at work into their homes. Parents with poor working conditions long hours overtime stressful work are more irritable at home and are less effective in parenting.
Divorce
413. 40% of children in the US experienced divorce.

Children in never divorced families are better adjusted. children from divorced families show poorer adjustment: depression, poor academic achiement, etc.

414.

Effects of divorce on children's development:
academic problems, externalized problems, anxiety, depression, less socially responsible, less competent relationships, more likely to drop out of school, C4 114 for more.

Divorced parents who can maintain a harmonious relationship create better adjusted children. 415

Whether or not parents should stay together for the sake of the children depends. 414. It's staying together results in excessive conflict divorce is advantageous. If diminished resources and increased risks associated with divorce are combined with continued conflict best choice is to continue marriage.
Marital conflict is associated with emotional problems in children.

Factors influencing a child's vulnerability to negative consequences of divorce.
415. Child's personality, temperament, adjustment prior to divorce, gender, custody.
Emotion security theory
414.Cummings. States that children considered marital conflict in terms of their sense of security and safety in the family. Researchers distinguish between marital conflict that is negative for children such as hostile emotional displays and marital conflict that can be positive for children such as disagreements involving a calm discussion. Researchers found parental conflict in kindergarten linked to children's emotional insecurity later. Also hire depression and anxiety in adolescence.
Divorce, explaining to children
416.
Explain the separation
Explain it is not the child's fault
Explain it may take time to feel better
Allow further discussion
Provide as much continuity as possible
Provide support for child
Stepfamilies
215
Take three forms typically
Stepfather where mother had custody of children and remarries
Step mother or father had custody and remarries
Blended where both parents bring children from a previous marriage

Simple families often show better adjustment
• Children in stepfamilies show more adjustment
problems
• Adolescence is an especially difficult time for formation of a stepfamily

Children and stepfamilies show more adjustment problems in children are non-divorced families. Including academic problems, lower self-esteem. However the majority of children and stepfamilies do not have problems.

Remarried parents face unique tasks:
• The couple must define and strengthen their marriage
• Renegotiate the biological parent-child relationships
• Establish step-parent-stepchild and stepsibling relationships (Ganong, Coleman, & Jamison, 2011).
• The complex histories and multiple relationships make adjustment difficult in a stepfamily (Goldscheider & Sassler, 2006).
• Only one-third of stepfamily couples stay remarried.
• Some remarried individuals are more adult-focused, responding more to the concerns of their partner, while others are more child-focused, responding more to the concerns of the children (Anderson & Greene, 2011).
Gay and lesbian parents
417
Approximately 33% of lesbians and 22% of gay men are parents
• Researchers have found few differences in children growing up with lesbian mothers or gay fathers and children growing up with heterosexual parents
• The overwhelming majority of children growing up in a gay or lesiban family have a heterosexual orientation
Cultural variations in parenting style
417 most frequent type of parenting is a warm and controlling style. The majority of cultures have determined children's healthy social development is best promoted by love and some parental control.

Cultural changes impacting families include greater mobility, migration to urban, separation of family members, smaller families, Less extended family households, increased maternal employment.

In some countries, authoritarian parenting is widespread - the norms of parenting and the goals for behavior are different than in the U.S.
• Ethnicity:
- Families within different ethnic groups in the U.S. differ in
many factors
- Large and extended families are more common among minority groups. Extended families can serve as an important buffer to stress

Acculturation: the cultural changes as a person is in contact with a new culture
- Family acculturation can affect parenting style and influences important decisions about the family (e.g., child care and education)
• Socioeconomic status
- Low income families have less access to resources, which influences:
• Nutrition
• Healthcare
• Protection from danger
• Enrichingeducationalandsocializationopportunities
parenting style
see cultural variations in style
see baumrind's parenting styles

Diiscussion of parenting styles has been specific to this one way interaction - that parents do something to their children. But the themes of reciprocal socialization and synchrony play a role, too. Children socialize parents, too. If you think about temperament, some children behave differently than others. Maybe I want to choose an indulgent parenting approach, but my child is misbehaving in class all the time. I might then need to switch to a more authoritarian parenting style in that case.
• Most parents use a combination of techniques, although one technique may be dominant
Ethnicity and parenting
418
Socioeconomic status and parenting
418
Characteristics of lower SES parents
Characteristics of higher SES parents
Low income parents are more likely to view education as a teacher's job where medium/high income parents think of education as both parents and teachers responsibility
Acculturation
419. Cultural changes that occur when one culture comes in contact with another culture.
Level of family acculturation can affect parenting style, influence important decisions about childcare and early childhood education
interactions within the family
Ineractions within the family of different types: - Mutual synchrony and scaffolding
- Reciprocal socialization
- And the interactions work in both directions - parents to children and children to parents.
Domain-specific socialization
see socialization practices
5 domains of the relationship:
parenting, general trends in
Parenting is a challenging task, as the goals of parenting aren't really clear and there isn't a lot of support for reaching those "goals."
• Currently, we see that people: - Tend to have fewer children
- Tend to have children later in life
- May choose to remain childless
- These things have definitely changed over time.
african american parenting style
African American parents are more likely to use physical punishments, but it could also be that they need to have harsh punishments because of the dangerous environment they live in.
Autonomy in adolescence
Autonomy
- Children increase desire for autonomy as they get older.
- Adolescents acquire the ability to make mature dcisions on their own
- Boys are given more independence than girls throughout adolescence.
attachment in adolescence
Attachment
- Secure attachments in adolescence involve positive peer relations and adolescent's emotion regulation capacities
only child
Only children also have positive outcomes. Are achievement orientated and display a desirable personality
• Birth order is interesting, but may not influence behavior as much as other factors.