In 2009, approximately 702,000 U.S. children were found to be victims of child abuse - 81% by a parent or parents.
About 1/3 of parents who were abused themselves when they were young abuse their own children
TYPES OF MALTREATMENT
2. Child neglect which is by far the most common form up to three times as often as abuse.
3. Sexual abuse
4. Emotional abuse which is almost always present with the other forms of abuse.
Contributing factors include culture, family and child's developmental characteristics.
406 CONTRIBUTING FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS to maltreatment include:
Child-abuse DEVELOPMENTAL CONSEQUENCES
Poor emotional regulation,
difficulty adapting to school,
psychological problems including depression and delinquency.
NEW RESEARCH suggests that the brains of children who have been abused are significantly different. For example, children who have been physically abused show increased activity in their amygdala, the area of the brain important for feelings and responses to fear
more likely than adolescents who were not maltreated as children to engage in violent romantic relationships, delinquency, sexual risk taking, and substance abuse.
As adults, maltreated children are also at risk for violent behavior toward others and difficulty maintaining healthy intimate relationships
Two treatments effective in reducing child maltreatment are:
1. Home visitation to improve parenting help cope with stress and give increase support to the mother
2. Parent infant psychotherapy focused on improving maternal infant attachment
Effects of maltreatment in adult hood
407. Problems with physical health, mental health, sexual function. Increased risk for diabetes, lung disease, malnutrition, vision problems comp. Difficulty establishing healthy relationships. Risk for violent behavior ,
substance abuse, anxiety, depression.