Terms in this set (83)

403. Legal in every state in America.
26% of US parents report spanking their children frequently.
Two views:one against spanking and one that says it can be used effectively.
Reasons to avoid spanking.
1. it presents children with an out of control model for handling stressful situations.
2. Punishment can instill fear, rage, or avoidance.
3. It tells children what not to do rather than what to do.
4. Punishment can be abusive.

Much of the evidence for the negative effects of spanking is based on studies in which parents acted abusively. Other studies show punishment in a calm reason manor benefits development. Only severe spanking compared unfavorably with other alternative practices for disciplining children 404.

Few studies distinguish between degrees of punishment.

Cultural context effects the positive or negative outcome of spanking. 404

Conclusion on physical punishment. If physical punishment is used it needs to be mild, infrequent, age-appropriate, and used in the context of a positive parent child relationship. 404

Spanking by parents is linked with children's antisocial behavior including cheating, telling lies, being mean to others, bullying, getting into fights, being disobedient. 403

Corporal punishment by parents is associated with higher levels of immediate compliance and aggression and lower levels of moral internalization and mental health. 403

Mothers use of physical punishment is linked to highest rates of aggression in children.

Harsh physical discipline is related to adolescent depression and external problems such as juvenile delinquency.

Marital conflict and individual hostility were linked with the use of physical punishment.
In 2009, approximately 702,000 U.S. children were found to be victims of child abuse - 81% by a parent or parents.

About 1/3 of parents who were abused themselves when they were young abuse their own children

406.
TYPES OF MALTREATMENT
1.Physical abuse
2. Child neglect which is by far the most common form up to three times as often as abuse.
3. Sexual abuse
4. Emotional abuse which is almost always present with the other forms of abuse.

Contributing factors include culture, family and child's developmental characteristics.

406 CONTRIBUTING FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS to maltreatment include:
parenting stress,
substance-abuse,
social isolation,
single parenting,
poverty.

Child-abuse DEVELOPMENTAL CONSEQUENCES
406.
Poor emotional regulation,
attachment problems,
peer relations,
difficulty adapting to school,
psychological problems including depression and delinquency.

NEW RESEARCH suggests that the brains of children who have been abused are significantly different. For example, children who have been physically abused show increased activity in their amygdala, the area of the brain important for feelings and responses to fear

IN ADOLESCENTS
more likely than adolescents who were not maltreated as children to engage in violent romantic relationships, delinquency, sexual risk taking, and substance abuse.

AS ADULTS
As adults, maltreated children are also at risk for violent behavior toward others and difficulty maintaining healthy intimate relationships

Two treatments effective in reducing child maltreatment are:
1. Home visitation to improve parenting help cope with stress and give increase support to the mother
2. Parent infant psychotherapy focused on improving maternal infant attachment
407

Effects of maltreatment in adult hood
407. Problems with physical health, mental health, sexual function. Increased risk for diabetes, lung disease, malnutrition, vision problems comp. Difficulty establishing healthy relationships. Risk for violent behavior ,
substance abuse, anxiety, depression.
407 two important aspects are autonomy /attachment and conflict.

Autonomy
- Children increase desire for autonomy as they get older.
- Adolescents acquire the ability to make mature dcisions on their own
- Boys are given more independence than girls throughout adolescence.

• Attachment
- Secure attachments in adolescence involve positive peer relations and adolescent's emotion regulation capacities

407. Adolescents desire to spend more time with peers and demonstrate that they are responsible for their own successes and failures.
Boys are given more independent than girls.

Young adolescents perception that their parents promoted more psychological AUTONOMY & less psychological control predicted fewer depressive symptoms two years later.

408. The most consistent outcomes in secure ATTACHMENT involve positive peer relations and development of emotion regulation capacities.

Securely attached at 14 years of age were more likely to report an exclusive relationship, comfortable with intimacy, & achieved increase in financial independence at 21 years of age.

Parent adolescent conflict
408. Most conflict is moderate & revolves around every day events of life, rarely major issues such as drugs or delinquency. These minor conflicts should be viewed as a positive development facilitating adolescent transition to being an autonomous individual. When there is a high degree of conflict, it is typically associated with various adolescent problems.

Immigrant families and adolescent parent conflict

409. Immigrant children acculturate more quickly than parents. Adolescent immigrants often expect more autonomy and romantic relationships which is likely to increase conflict although it often goes unexpressed.

Acculturation based conflict
409. Immigrant adolescents may feel parents want them to give a personal interest for the sake of the family.
Stereotypes or ideas of parent-adolescent conflict, are, on average, not as terrible as TV or G. Stanley Hall describes.

Parent/adolescent conflict

Mostconflictduringearlyadolescencebutthen tapers off toward the end of adolescence.

408. Most conflict is moderate & revolves around every day events of life, rarely major issues such as drugs or delinquency. These minor conflicts should be viewed as a positive development facilitating adolescent transition to being an autonomous individual. When there is a high degree of conflict, it is typically associated with various adolescent problems.

Cross-cultural studies reveal that parent-adolescent conflict is lower in some countries than in the U.S., such as in Japan and India

Immigrant families and adolescent parent conflict

409. Immigrant children acculturate more quickly than parents. Adolescent immigrants often expect more autonomy and romantic relationships which is likely to increase conflict although it often goes unexpressed.

Acculturation based conflict
409. Immigrant adolescents may feel parents want them to give a personal interest for the sake of the family.

The conflicts between parent and adolescent might be a good way for a child to learn negotiation as they transition to becoming more independent. One of the main features of authoritative parenting styles is the give and take that occurs between the child and the adult. This is a good way for children to learn to negotiate and work with others.

• Attachment figures and support systems help adolescents explore a more complex social world.

Prolonged intense conflict is associated with adolescent problems such as:
- Movement out of the home
- Juvenile delinquency
- School dropout
- Pregnancy and early marriage - Membership in religious cults - Drug abuse
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