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Respiratory and circulatory systems objectives
Terms in this set (17)
Describe the characteristics of respiratory structures that are common to ALL respiratory systems.
Respiratory structures provide a large surface area of moist, selectively permeable membrane. Respiratory structures maintain a difference in the relative concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide on either side of respiratory membrane, promoting diffusion.
Describe how/why animals that have NO specialized respiratory structures are still able to exchange gases with their environment.
Some animals are small enough that they have a large enough surface area to volume ratio that they do not need to evolve a specialized organ to give them a larger surface area in which to diffuse carbon dioxide and oxygen across.
Identify the respiratory structures that land animals use to breathe. (Mammals, birds, insects)
Mammals: Breve with lungs
Mammals have a two-way breathing system which uses a diaphragm to pump air in and out of their lungs. Mammal lungs branch extensively, and their entire volume is filled with bubble like structures called alveoli. Mammals have the greatest lawn service area among animals.
Birds: Breve with lungs
In birds the lungs are structured so that the air flows mostly in only one direction. No stale air gets trapped in the system. A unique system of tubes air sacs in birds respiratory system enabled this one way airflow thus the gas exchange surfaces are constantly in contact with fresh air.
In most insects a system of tracheal tubes extend throughout the body. Air enters and leaves the system through openings in the body surface called spiracles. In some insects, oxygen and carbon dioxide die fuse through the tracheal system, And in and out of body fluids in other insects body movements help pump air in and out of the tracheal system.
Identify the respiratory structures that aquatic animals use to breathe. (BOTH vertebrates AND invertebrates.)
Many aquatic vertebrates and most aquatic chordates other than reptiles and mammals exchange gas through gills. Gills are feathery structures that expose a large surface area of thin, selectively permeable membrane to water. Inside gill membranes is a network of tiny, Thin walled blood vessels called capillaries which oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse in and out of.
Some aquatic invertebrates such as cnidarians and some flatworms, are relatively small and have thin walled bodies whose outer services are always wet. These animals rely on the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through their outer body covering directly into their body.
Describe the flow of water and blood through a counter current exchange system and explain the benefits of counter current circulation.
Counter current exchange is the mechanism by which some property of a fluid, such as heat or a chemical substance, is transferred from one fluid across a semi-permeable membrane or thermally conductive material to another fluid flowing in the opposite direction. The advantage that this in regard to respiration is that it can fully saturate blood with oxygen and dispose of all carbon dioxide.
Describe the flow of air through the body of a mammal.
Air goes into the lungs and then back out in a two way respiration system.
Explain the mechanics of mammal respiration. (Why does air enter and leave?)
The diaphragm pulls down on the lungs which expands them and creates a partial vacuum inside the lungs. Because of the partial vacuum air is then pushed in by the surrounding atmosphere which fills the lungs. While the air is in the lungs the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. Then the diaphragm pushes up on the lungs creating higher pressure inside the lungs then in the surrounding atmosphere which pushes the air out.
Describe how feedback inhibition by the brain controls the rate of respiration.
feedback inhibition is negative feedback, when stimulus makes response that opposes original stimulus. keeps conditions within certain range, like temperature in a home. I think that it controls breathing because if carbon dioxide in blood is too concentrated, sends signal to breathe
Describe the causes and symptoms of asthma and lung cancer.
Asthma- When the trachea becomes inflamed causing the air passage to shrink, allowing less oxygen to flow. Lung cancer- irregular growth of cells in the lungs (tumor)
Describe the difference between an open and a closed circulatory system and name several different types of animals which use each.
an open circulatory system is when blood is only partially contained within series of blood vessels as it travels through body, organs pump blood into system of spongy cavities where it comes in contact with blood tissue. collects in other set of sinuses and makes its way back to the heart (through another pump?). pretty shitty system but works for arthropods and most mollusks
closed circulatory systems are when blood is circulated entirely within blood vessels. hearts or something like it forces blood through the vessels, nutrients diffused across the thin walls of the capillaries. very dank system (more efficient), for larger and more active invertebrates (annelids and some mollusks) and all vertebrates.
Describe the flow of blood through a single loop system and through a double loop system. (Compare and contrast single and double loop systems.)
a single loop system is when system with single pump forces blood around the body in one direction. in fishes, heart has an atrium where the it receives blood from the body, ventricle pumps blood then to gills, this blood goes to rest of body and comes back to atrium. good for smaller capillary networks, most vertebrates with gills
a double loop system is when there are two pumps + loops, first is powered by one side of heart and forces oxygen poor blood to the lungs. blood gets oxygen and returns to other side of heart to be pumped through the second loop to rest of body. oxygen poor blood comes back to first loop to do it all again. most vertebrates that use lungs
Describe the evolution of the mammalian heart by comparing the structures of the hearts of fish, amphibians, reptiles (and crocodilians) and mammals.)
partitions during chordate evolution made original two chambers evolved to four, one pump became two, oxygen rich blood separated from oxygen poor
fish hearts have two chambers, one atrium and one ventricle. they have a single loop system.
amphibian hearts have three chambers, two atria and one ventricle. left atrium gets oxygen rich blood from lungs, right gets oxygen poor from body. both empty into ventricle. some mixing occurs, but ventricle directs blood flow so that most oxygen poor blood goes to lungs and most oxygen rich goes to body
reptilian hearts have three chambers. most have partial partition in ventricle, less mixing of blood than amphibians.
still need crocodilians
Describe the flow of blood through the heart and body of a mammal (like a human), naming major vessels and heart chambers.
the heart is the central hub of the circulatory system, two sides, upper part are ventricles and lower are atriums. septum separate the sides. blood from body goes to right atrium and pumped to lungs, blood from lungs goes to left atrium (Lungs goes to Left), pumped to rest of body. Valves keep everything going one direction, between atria and ventricles and outside ventricles. heart muscles get oxygen and nutrients from coronary arteries. pulmonary circulation is right side of heart, systemic circulation is left side of heart. heartbeat controlled by muscle fibers sending signals. From heart the blood goes to arteries, capillaries, and veins - see Q15 for more detail. I think I'm missing "major vessels" and maybe some other stuff.
Describe the location and function of valves in the human circulatory system.
Keep everything going in one direction, between atria and ventricles and outside ventricles, veins, anywhere else?
Describe the three types of blood vessels and relate the structure of each to its function.
Three types of vessels are arteries which carry blood from heart to body tissue, carry oxygen rich blood. have thick walls to withstand pressure, lot of smooth muscle which can expand and contract to change pressure. Capillaries are the smallest vessels, blood has to pass through single file, thin walls allows oxygen + nutrients to diffuse from blood to tissues, and co2 and waste into blood. After blood goes through capillaries it goes to veins back to the heart, many contain valves. Veins have thin walls because after going through the capillaries the pressure is decreased.
Explain what is meant by blood pressure and use the words systole and diastole to explain blood pressure readings.
Diastole=pressure between beats. Systolic pressure= when heart contracts
Describe the causes and effects of stroke, heart attack and high blood pressure (hypertension).
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