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19 terms

Basic Human Genetics

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Homologous chromosomes
one of two paired chromosomes, one from each parent, that carries genes for a specific trait at the same location
Haploid
cell with half the number of chromosomes as a diploid cell
Gamete
haploid sex cell, formed during meiosis, that can be combined with another haploid sex cell and produce a diploid fertilized egg
meiosis
reduction division process, occurring only in reproductive cells, in which one diploid cell produces four haploid cells that are not genetically identical.
crossing over
exchange of chromosomal segments between a pair of homologous chromosmes during Prophase I of Meiosis
Genes
functional unit that controls inherited trait expression that is passed on from one generation to another
allele
alternative form that a single gene may have for a particular trait
dominat
most common, shown most common, appears the most, masks the recessive trait
recessive
hidden or masked; less common
homozygous
organism with 2 of the smae alleles for a specific trait
heterozygous
organism with 2 different alleles for a specific trait
genotype
an organism's allele pairs
phenotype
observable characterisitic that is expressed as a result of an allele pair.
probability
the chances of getting a specific result
sex-linked traits
characteristic controlled by genes on the X chromosome
carrier
individual heterozygous for a recessive disorder
sex chromosomes
X or Y chromosome; paired sex chromosmes determine an individual's gender
autosomes
chromsome that is not a sex chromosome
hybrid
organism heterozygous for a specific trait