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25 terms

MCAT Hormones 2

Know specifics of each hormone
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Erythropoietin
is a peptide that is found in the kidney and increases red blood cell synthesis in bone marrow
Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF)
peptide originating in the heart that targets the kidneys to increase in urination in order to reduce blood pressure
Estrogen
steroid produced in the ovaries and placenta that is responsible for female characteristics and endometrial growth
Progesterone
steroid produced in the ovaries and placenta that promotes endometrial secretion and functions in pregnancy
Testosterone
steroid produced in the testes that is responsible for male characteristics and spermatogenesis
Insulin
peptide secreted by the beta cells in the endocrine pancreas that decreases blood glucose concentration and increases glycogen and fate storage
Glucagon
peptide secreted by the alpha cells in the endocrine pancreas that increases blood glucose concentration and decreases glycogen and fat storage
Somatostatin
peptide secreted by the SS-delta cells in the endocrine pancreas that inhibits many digestive processes
Cortisol
steroid originating in the adrenal cortex that is a long term stress response, which increases blood glucose concentration and protein catabolism while decreasing inflammation and immunity
Aldosterone
steroid in the adrenal cortex that increases sodium ion reabsorption in the kidneys to increase blood pressure
Sex steroids
originate in the adrenal cortex that are not normally important but may overproduce causing masculinization or feminization in the case of an adrenal tumor
Epinephrine
modified amino acid originating in the adrenal medulla that is a rapid sympathetic stress response
Thymosin
peptide found only in children that functions in Tcell development during childhood (thymus)
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
peptide found in the parathyroid that raises calcium ion concentration of serum in bones, kidneys, and small intestine
Calcitonin
peptide produced in the Thyroid C cells that lowers calcium ion concentration in the serum of bones and kidneys
Thyroid Hormone
modified amino acid from the thyroid that is necessary for physical and mental development in children and increases metabolic rate and temperature in adults
Antidiuretic Hormone
peptide released from the posterior pituitary that promotes water retention in the kidneys
Oxytocin
peptide originating in the posterior pituitary that functions in milk letdown in the breasts and contraction in the uterus
Luteinizing Hormone
peptide release from the Anterior pituitary (gonadotropic) that functions in ovulation in the ovary and testosterone synthesis in the testes
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
peptide (anterior pituitary gonadotropic) that functions in follicle development in the ovaries and spermatogenesis in the testes
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
peptide released by the tropic anterior pituitary that increases synthesis and release of thyroid hormone by the thyroid
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
peptide released by the tropic anterior pituitary that increases growth and secretory activity in the adrenal ctx
Growth Hormone
peptide originating in the anterior pituitary that increases bone and muscle growth and cell turnover
Prolactin
anterior pituitary peptide that functions in milk production in the mammary gland
Releasing and inhibiting factors
hypothalamus peptides that modify activity in the anterior pituitary