Looking at Movies (3rd ed) Chapter 9
Terms in this set (31)
Sound that emanates from the ambience (background) of the setting or environment being filmed, either recorded during production or added during postproduction. Although it may incorporate other types of film sound—dialogue, narration, sound effects, Foley sounds, and music—ambient sound does not include any unintentionally recorded noise made during production.
The degree of motion of air (or other medium) within a sound wave. The greater the amplitude of the sound wave, the harder it strikes the eardrum, and thus the louder the sound. Compare loudness.
automatic dialogue replacement (ADR)
Rerecording done via computer—a faster, less expensive, and more technically sophisticated process than rerecording that is done with actors.
A polelike mechanical device for holding the microphone in the air, out of camera range, that can be moved in almost any direction.
The lip-synchronous speech of characters who are either visible onscreen or speaking offscreen, say from another part of the room that is not visible or from an adjacent room.
Sound that originates from a source within a film's world.
A means of storing recorded sound, made possible by computer technology, in which each sound wave is represented by combinations of the numbers 0 and 1.
The standard technique of recording film sound on a medium separate from the picture; this technique allows both for maximum quality control of the medium and for the many aspects of manipulating sound during postproduction editing, mixing, and synchronization.
A form of diegetic sound that comes from a place within the world of the story, which we and the characters in the scene hear but do not see. Compare internal sound.
The faithfulness or unfaithfulness of a sound to its source.
A sound belonging to a special category of sound effects, invented in the 1930s by Jack Foley, a sound technician at Universal Studios. Technicians known as Foley artists create these sounds in specially equipped studios, where they use a variety of props and other equipment to simulate sounds such as footsteps in the mud, jingling car keys, or cutlery hitting a plate.
The speed with which a sound is produced (the number of sound waves produced per second). The speed of sound remains fairly constant when it passes through air, but it varies in different media and in the same medium at different temperatures. Compare pitch.
The wavelengths that make up a sound. Compare quality.
One variation on the mental, subjective point of view of an individual character that allows us to see a character and hear that character's thoughts (in his or her own voice, even though the character's lips don't move).
A form of diegetic sound in which we hear the thoughts of a character we see onscreen and assume that other characters cannot hear them. Compare external sound.
The volume or intensity of a sound, which is defined by its amplitude. Loudness is described as either loud or soft.
The commentary spoken by either offscreen or onscreen voices, frequently used in narrative films, where it may emanate from an omniscient voice (and thus not one of the characters) or from a character in the movie. There are two main types of narration: firstperson narration and voice-over narration.
Sound that originates from a source outside a film's world. Compare diegetic sound.
Sound that has previously been established in the movie and occurs when a character has a mental flashback to an earlier voice that recalls a conversation or a sound that identifies a place. Compare simultaneous sound.
A form of sound, either diegetic or nondiegetic, that derives from a source we do not see. When diegetic, it consists of sound effects, music, or vocals that emanate from the world of the story. When nondiegetic, it takes the form of a musical score or narration by someone who is not a character in the story. Compare onscreen sound.
A form of diegetic sound that emanates from a source that we both see and hear. Onscreen sound may be internal sound or external sound. Compare offscreen sound.
Material that is not used in either the rough cut or the final cut, but is cataloged and saved.
Sound that carries over from one shot to the next before the sound of the second shot begins.
The level of a sound, which is defined by its frequency. Pitch is described as either high or low.
Also known as timbre, texture, or color. The complexity of a sound, which is defined by its harmonic content. Described as simple or complex, quality is the characteristic that distinguishes a sound from others of the same pitch and loudness.
Also known as looping or dubbing. The replacing of dialogue, which can be done manually (that is, with the actors watching the footage, synchronizing their lips with it, and rereading the lines) or, more likely today, through computerized automatic dialogue replacement (ADR). (Dubbing also refers to the process of replacing dialogue in a foreign language with English, or the reverse, throughout a film.)
Sound that is diegetic and occurs onscreen. Compare nonsimultaneous sound.
The group that generates and controls a movie's sound physically, manipulating its properties to produce the effects that the director desires.
A state-of-the-art concept, pioneered by director Francis Ford Coppola and film editor Walter Murch, combining the crafts of editing and mixing and, like them, involving both theoretical and practical issues. In essence, sound design represents advocacy for movie sound (to counter some people's tendency to favor the movie image).
A sound artificially created for the sound track that has a definite function in telling the story.
A separate recording tape occupied by one specific type of sound recorded for a movie (one track for vocals, one for sound effects, one for music, etc.).