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____is the accumulation of nitrogenous waste in the bloodstream (kidney fails to filter wastes)
Urine formation begins with the filtration of fluid from a spheroid capillary bed called the ____
___ is a process in which the tubules remove wastes from the blood and add them to the tubular fluid
The ___ reflex involuntarily empties the bladder unless one consciously suppresses urination.
The ___ apparatus monitors the composition and concentration of the tubular fluid and adjusts the glomerular filtration rate
True or False: The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs about the same amount of water regardless of the body's state of hydration
The kidneys remove the -NH2 group from amino acids and convert the resulting ammonia into urea.
After urine enters a minor calyx, it undergoes no further changes in composition or concentration.
Starting in the abdominal cavity and progressing dorsally, you would have to cut through the __, in this order, to expose the kidney.
Peritoneum, renal fascia, adipose capsule, and renal capsule
Which of these is not part of a nephron?
Distal convoluted tubule
Urine normally contains all of the following except:
The average adult must excrete at least __ of urine per day to maintain a safe and stable concentration of urea in the blood.
If magnesium chloride completely ionizes in water to Mg2+ and C1-, it would require __ of MgC12 to make 0.5 of a 300 mOsm/L solution.
Cannot be calculated without knowing the molecular weight of MgC12
The 3 regions of male urethra are:
The prostatic, membranous, and penile
The prostatic, bulbar, and penile
The prostatic, vesicular, and penile
The vesicular, bulbar, and penile
The vesicular, membranous, and penile
Prostatic, membranous, penile (pmp)
Immediately after the arcuate artery, blood flows into:
If we follow the ureter into the kidney, we find that the first structure to arise from it is:
The cells of the distal convoluted tubule that come in contact with the afferent arteriole are:
The total amount of fluid entering the capsular spaces of all the nephrons in a given time is called:
glomerular filtration rate
The kidneys do not:
control blood pressure
regulate the pH of body fluids
have any role in erythrocyte production
produce vitamin D
secrete hormones that stimulate thirst
secrete hormones that stimulate thirst
By constricting the ___, angiotensin II maintains the blood pressure in the glomerulus even when systemic blood pressure drops.
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by
the proximal convoluted tubule.
The thick segment of the ascending limb of the nephron loop is permeable to:
water but not urea
sodium ions but not potassium ions
sodium and potassium ions but not chloride
water, but not salts
Sodium, potassium, and chloride ions but not water
sodium, potassium, and chloride ions, but not water
The collecting duct reabsorbs not only water but also __, thus contributing to the osmotic gradient of the renal medulla.
Glucose gets from the tubular fluid into the cytoplasm of the proximal convoluted tubule cells by means of:
secondary active transport
A simple squamous epithelium is found in:
a. Parietal/visceral layers of glomerular capsule
b. Parietal layer of the glomerular capsule and thin segment of the nephron loop
c. Parietal layer of the glomerular capsule and proximal convoluted tubule
d. The renal pelvis and ureter
Parietal layer of the glomerular capsule and thin segment of the nephron loop
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