50 terms

ANTH 167 Final Exam

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flotation
involves using water to process soil or feature fill to recover tiny artifacts
bioarchaeology
was first coined by British archaeologist Grahame Clark in 1972 as a reference to zooarchaeology, or the study of animal bones from archaeological sites
New York African Burial Ground
New York City cemetery containing over 400 burials c. 1712-179, caused major controversy in the African American community
Conservation Ethic
protection of health of the natural world and conserving materials
National Historic Preservation Act
legislation intended to preserve historical & archaeological sites in the U.S. The act created the National Register of Historic Places, the list of National Historic Landmarks, & the State Historic Preservation Offices.The act requires Federal agencies to evaluate the impact of all Federally funded or permitted projects on historic properties (buildings, archaeological sites, etc.)
Lithic Core
scarred nucleus resulting from the detachment of one or more flakes from a lumo of source material
Cahokia
an ancient settlement of southern Indians, located near present day St. Louis, it served as a trading center for 40,000 at its peak in A.D. 1200.
Descendant Communities
biological offspring of the people who lived on the sites being studied; defined by their historical, cultural, and symbolic associations to the places that they consider ancestral.
Cultural Resource Management
a branch of archaeology tied to government policies for the protection of cultural resources and involving surveying and/or excavating archaeological and historical remains threatened by construction or development
Community-Based Archaeology
Research and interpretation planned and implemented by archaeologists and a local community usually the people whose past is the subject of study
Conspicuous Consumption
Buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position
Craft Specialization
economic system that allows individuals to devote full time to certain occupations; fostered many technological advances of the Neolithic
Social Stratification
A system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
Flake
A chip of stone knocked off a core, using a hammerstone, in order to make a stone tool. Flakes have a striking platform and a bulb of percussion (bulge on opposite side from point of contact with hammerstone)
Archaeobotany
the archaeological sub-field that studies plant remains from archaeological sites
Domestication
Selective growing or breeding of plants and animals to make them more useful to humans
Enamel Hypoplasia
incomplete or defective formation of the enamel of either primary or permanent teeth; result may be an irregularity of the tooth form, color, or surface
Trauma
A body wound or shock produced by sudden physical injury, as from violence or an accident.
Roman Mosaic at Lod
Lod, Israel 300 AD: A variety of fauna, including many fish that formed part of the regular dicts of those who lived close enough to the sea to get fresh fish. The mosaic represents shellfish (e.g, mollusks, bivalves) and fish like bream, mullet, sea bass and snapper
Percussion and Pressure Flaking
pressure--using steady pressure on a punch to remove flake(allows finer control)
Percussion-- core is struck to produce a series of flakes
Lithic Reduction Sequence
Sequence of steps taken to produce a stone tool (subtractive technology )
1) change from direct percussion to pressure flaking
2) decrease in flake size
3) increase in number of scars on dorsal surface and on platform
4) decrease in the amount of cortex on the platform and dorsal surface
Paste (ceramics)
the substance that holds sections of clay together to make a ceramic piece
Flintknapping
subtractive method of making tools use one rock to hit another
Mound 72
A mound at Cahokia where excavation uncovered an individual buried ona bird-shaped platform made of shells, as well as mass burials of apparently sacrificed victims
Residue Analysis
analysis of residue on the lithic tools to find certain chemical that show what the tool was used for such as food or blood residue, which could hint to cooking tool or hunting tool
Teosinte
The wild ancestor of maize
Dental Caries v. Dental Wear
DC:dental cavities
DW:the use wear analysis of how one utilized their teeth throughout their lifetime
Maize
An early form of corn
Market Exchange
a mode of exchange which implies a specific location for transactions and social relations where bargaining can occur ; price making through negotiation
Sourcing Studies
Techniques that allow us to identify characteristic properties of materials so that the source of the material can be determined.
Use Wear Analysis
Continuous activities such as tools with a singular purpose may leave traces such as scratching or polished area's. These traces can be seen via the use of scanning electron microscopes ( S.E.M) . Sometimes these traces can be identified and the activity can be attained giving the most likely purpose of the artifact found
Ingots
mass of metal, some found at Uluburun Shipwreck
Cognitive Map
an interpretive framework of the world which exists in the human mind and affects actions an decisions
Seasonality
An estimate of what part of the year a particular archaeological site was occupied
Thin Section Analysis
a technique whereby microscopic thin sections are cut from a stone object or potsherd and examined with a petrological microscope to determine the source of the material
Attribute Analysis
when analysis of specific characteristics, such as form and signs of wear, are used to establish range of tasks artifact was used for
NISP v. MNI
Both try to determine how many species are in one site. NISP counts just the number of identified species (could over count). MNI is the minimum number of species found at the site (could under count).
Stakeholders
group of people that have an interest in archaeological sites
Workers Village at Giza
Faunal analyst Richard Redding find a tremendous quantities of cattle, sheep, and goat bones that could enough to feed several thousand people, even if they ate meat every day; 88% of the animals represented in the samples < 2 years of age; Sex ratio for the cattle material is four males for every female; Sheep & Goat are more than 50% of the animals represented < fifteen months old; Same ratio as Cattle in being four males for every female
Experimental Archaeology
ancient conditions are recreated so that an archaeologist can test a hypothesis
Underwater Archaeology
The study of sites and shipwrecks beneath the surface of the water, much more difficult to recover than material that has been buried. Underwater archaeology includes the examination of submerged settlement sites under freshwater lake, in harbors, and shipwrecks under the sea
Temper
inclusions in pottery clay which act to give the clay added strength and workability and to counteract any shrinking and cracking during firing
Historical Archaeology
a subfield of archaeology that studies the remains of cultures that existed during the time of written records but about which little was recorded
Paleopathology
The branch of osteology that studies the evidence of disease and injury in human skeletal remains
Redistribution
a mode of exchange which implies the operation of some central organizing authority; goods are received by the central authority and some are sent to other locations
Porotic Hyperostosis
expansion and porosity of cranial bones due to anemia caused by an iron-deficient diet, parasitic infection, or genetic disease
Zooarchaeologist
An archaeologist who specializes in the study of the animal remains recovered
Reciprocity
a mode of exchange in which transactions take place between individuals who are symmetrically placed; exchanging as equals
Uluburun Shipwreck
late Bronze Age 14th century BCE; richest known, invaluable info on Mediterranean trading community; cargo might be all for one destination or it may be a kind of floating market; dated w/ dendochronology--logs within the ship; relative dates from ceramics and contextual dates of Egyptian scarab dated to 1320-1295 BCE
Subsistence
farming that provides for the basic needs of the farmer without surpluses for marketing