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Terms in this set (78)
people who die due to food poisoning each year
# of foodbourne illnesses that occur outside the home
foods that have greatest risk of getting a foodbourne illness
meat, poultry, seafood, milk,etc (high protein, high moisture foods)
pathogens need in order to grow
food, water, right temperature
categories of microorganisms
pathogenic m/o, spoilage m/o, beneficial m/o
# of known species of pathogenic microorganisms
250 known, thousands unknown
% of microorganisms that are considered pathogenic
pathogenic m/o's action
cause illness due to food intoxication which occurs when consuming food that has been contaminated
spoilage m/o's action
cause food to deteriorate, dont cause illness
% of microorganisms that are considered spoilage
beneficial m/o's action
provide desirable effects such as molds on cheese, alcohol, bread, etc
% of microorganisms that are considered beneficial
types of pathogenic organisms
(smallest to largest) prions, viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, parasites
what are prions and an example of them
toxic proteins, ex. mad cow disease
what are viruses
toxic nucleic acids that are non living
% of deaths each year from viruses
what are bacteria and how many deaths each year are caused from this
procaryotes, no nucleus. 72%
shape of bacteria
round(cocci)-ex. yogurt, rod(bacilli)
what are fungi
eucaryotes: single celled plants w/o chlorophyll
two types of fungi
how do molds grow
how many cells in mold
multicellular(often visible, ex.mushrooms)
how do yeasts grow
how many cells in yeast and what does it create on food
mostly single celled, creates slime on food and fermentation
what are protozoa
small organisms that infect humans
% deaths by protozoa
how are parasites transferred and can you see them
yes, visible with eye-worms, etc. transfer from other animals
what are chemicals
heavy metals, pesticides, etc
modes of actions of pathogens
infection, toxic infection, toxin producers
how does infection occur
attaches to intestinal cells, invade or cause irritation, colonize, enteritis(killing intestines) from that you get inflammation, fever is also common
how does toxic infection occur
attach to intestinal cells, produce toxin inside host, enteritis rate
what do toxin producers produce
produce toxin in food before ingesiton
foodbourne bacterial infection types(invasive)
salmonella, shigella, yersinia enterocolitica, enteroinfective e. coli(EIEC), listeria monocytogenes, streptococcus species
what are the two different categories of salmonella?
typhoid and nontyphoid
how many deaths per year are due to salmonella?
(most common cause of death) ~500 deaths per year
# serotypes of salmonella
rare, high fever, constipation, invades lymph tissue, new strain: DT104 resistant to antibiotics
more common, variety diahrea, can enter egg
salmonella is found
on skin of reptiles, is heat labile, waxy coat on bacteria, causes problems for immune system
invades and kills intestinal cells, causes dysentary: bloody diarrhea, very low infective dose:~10, hand washing
yersinia enterocoliticia function
related to Y. pestis, grows at refrigerator temps, heat stable spores, not inactivated by autoclave, 14 day lag period, incidence rare but increasing, some strains pathogenic but others not, severe diarrhea:toxic shock
bloody diahrea, very low infective dose, commonly called bacilary
% of ecoli that will actually affect you
listeria monocytogenes function/ where its found
unbiquitous: low levels on most foods, can grow at refrigerator temps, raw or poorly pasteurized milk, soft cheese
two stages of listeria monocytogenes
24 hours after exposure, 1-6 weeks after exposure
when infected with listeria monocytogenes what happens 24 hours after exposure
nausea, vomitting, diahrea
when infected with listeria monocytogenes what happens 1-6 weeks after exposure
can travel to brain and cause meningitis, etc, miscarriages, fatal for immunocompromised, can cross all barriers:intestine, BBB, placenta, travels cell to cell, not in blood, up to 30% mortality
what was it decided that should be avoided by pregnant women and in senior centers by CDC in 1992
pregnant women should avoid deli foods esp cold cutes, senior centers: all cold cuts should be cooked
two types of streptococcus series
A & D
how is type a strep A spread and what does it cause
spread to food by coughing and sneezing, causes sore throat and fever
how is step D spread and what does it cause
found in poorly processed food, causes NVD
how is spoilage different from contamination?
contact with one food to another, you cant taste, see, or smell it. spoilage is unacceptable eating quality
why is ground meat more perishable than other?
more surface are=more bacterial interaction
foods that should be stored in coldest part of fridge
high protein foods like meat and eggs
correct temp for a freezer
why you should clean tops of cans
there may be dirt on tops that can get into foods when you open them
4 elements of potentially hazardous foods
amount of water, pH level, high in starch, protein content
How much bleach is needed in water to be an effective sanitizing solution?
a. 1 teaspoon per gallon
b. 1 teaspoon per quart
c. 1 tablespoon per gallon
d. 1 tablespoon per quart
During preparation, service, and cooling, food should not be held in the danger zone longer than
a. 2 hours
b. 3 hours
c. 4 hours
d. 5 hours
"Clean" means that the surface/equipment has been
a. swept clear of crumbs.
b. washed to remove visible soil.
c. sanitized to kill bacteria.
d. sterilized to kill bacteria.
Some microorganisms produce toxins in the human intestine which cause illness. This is called
a. food infection
b. food intoxication
c. toxin-mediated infection
d. all of the above
Bacteria that grow well at refrigerator temperatures are called
A food infection capable of causing illness in a human subject may result from
a. toxin production in an unrefrigerated food.
b. spore formation by bacteria present in canned vegetables.
c. growth of pathogenic microorganisms in an unrefrigerated food.
d. fermentation by microorganisms in a food mixture left at room temperature.
A microorganism that is capable of causing a food infection leading to illness is
a. Aspergillus flavus.
b. Salmonella enteritidis.
c. Clostridium botulinum.
d. Staphylococcus aureus.
Foods often associated with the presence of Salmonellae organisms include
a. raw meat, poultry, and eggs.
b. pasteurized milk, cheese, and yogurt.
c. home-canned meats and vegetables.
d. fresh fruits, vegetables, and cereal grains.
The most likely sources of human infection by Campylobacter are
a. custard or cream-filled baked goods.
b. inadequately cooked foods of animal origin.
c. inadequately processed home-canned vegetables or meats.
d. meat or poultry held for serving at warm but not hot temperatures
The survival of Campylobacter jejuni in food products is prolonged by
d. acidic conditions
Illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes is most likely to occur in
a. pregnant women.
b. young adults.
c. people with incomes below the poverty level.
d. people who eat large amounts of seafood.
Symptoms of hemorrhagic colitis and possibly hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans may be caused by eating food contaminated with
a. Clostridium botulinum.
b. Campylobacter jejuni.
c. Staphylococcus aureus.
d. Escherichia coli O157:H7.
If a cooked meat dish that causes illness when eaten by human subjects has been cooled too slowly or held on a steam table at a temperature below 140°F for an extended period of time, the causative organism is likely to be
a. Campylobacter jejuni.
b. Clostridium botulinum.
c. Clostridium perfringens.
d. Escherichia coli O157:H7.
The symptoms of Staphylococcus food poisoning usually occur within what time period after a person eats the contaminated food?
a. 1-7 hours
b. 12-24 hours
c. 2-3 days
d. 2 days to 3 weeks
Which of the following organisms usually causes illness by toxin production in foods before they are consumed?
b. Yersinia enterocolitica.
c. Staphylococcus aureus.
d. Escherichia coli O157:H7.
Should infants under one year of age be served honey?
a. Yes, it is a natural form of sugar
b. Yes, it is safe for all ages
c. No, infants can become ill because of Trichinella spiralis
d. No, infants can become ill because of Clostridium botulinum
Yeasts are one-celled microorganisms that thrive particularly well in
a. dry cereals.
b. fresh water fish.
c. acidic fruit juices.
d. vacuum packed vegetables.
Mycotoxins are produced by
a. certain species of molds.
b. Hepatitis A or Norwalk-like viruses.
c. nematodes such as Trichinella spiralis.
d. some strains of Clostridium botulinum
Early symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and sweating with later symptoms of muscular pains, facial edema, and fever are signs of
Solanine in a food source is representative of
b. pesticide residues.
c. environmental contaminants.
d. naturally occurring toxic substances.
Seafood, such as tuna, swordfish, and mackerel, are associated with which food borne illness when temperature-abused?
a. Paralytic shellfish poisoning
d. Cyclospora cayetanensis
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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Ch 9 Food Composition
Ch 11 sugars and sweetners
Ch 10 fat, frying, and emulsions
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