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Geography: Realms, Regions and Concepts

Wet Monsoon

hot summer months when low atmospheric pressure over the land sucks in moisture laden air from the adjacent cooler ocean

Social stratification

a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy


people who flee their country because of persecution or danger

Population geography

A subdivision of human geography that focuses on the spatial aspects of demography and the influences of demographic change on particular

population distribution

the way people have arranged themselves in geographic space.

population density

number of individuals per unit area

physiologic density

the number of people per unit area of arable land.

rate of natural population change

Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths per 1000 individuals per year.Nature increase of a population does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements.

demographic transition

change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

population explosion

the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century

forward capital

capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border,


A policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a country aimed at a group of its nationals living in a neighboring country

caste system

the strict social segregation of people-specifically in india's hindu society-on the basis of ancestry and occupation

intervening opportunity

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

natural hazards

events in the physical environment that can destroy human life and property

failed state

a country whose institutions have collapsed and where anarchy prevails

insurgent state

Territorial embodiment of a successful guerrilla movement. The establishment by antigovernment insurgents of a territorial base in which they exercise full control; thus a state within a state.


An area or frontier of uncertain boundaries that is subject to various national claims and an unstable political history. Refers specifically to the movement of various armies, refugees, and migrants across such zones.


people speaking Indo-European languages based in what is today Iran


foundation of Hinduism, Aryan belief system


the "oppressed"; in India, people assigned to the lowest social class (another name for untouchables)


means "children of God" and was Gandhi's designation for the untouchables


the country the Sikhs wanted to create, meaning "pure people"


a desire to remake India as a society in which Hindu principles prevail

golden quadrilateral

a four-lane expressway in India that connects Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata


foothills between Himalayas and Indo-Gangetic Plain; Nepal

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