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Planetary and Stellar Astronomy: Test 1
Terms in this set (27)
One important characteristic of a scientific theory is that it...
It can be tested by observation
Constellations are generally made up of stars that are...
merely located along more or less the same line of sight as viewed from Earth
Diurnal motion of objects in the sky is caused by the...
rotation of the Earth's axis
What basic pattern do stars seem to trace out in our sky if you watch (or photograph) stars near the north celestial pole for a period of several hours?
circles, with the north celestial pole at the center
The equinox is the time when...
day and night are all equal everywhere on the Earth
On the celestial sphere, which term refers to the path of the Sun?
The two angles used by astronomers to define the position of a star in the sky and define a coordinate system applicable anywhere on Earth are...
right ascension and declination
In one hour how many degrees do the stars appear to move?
If the unaided human eye is sensitive enough to see about 600 of the stars in the entire sky, about how much stars would be seen at one time on a given night from a single location from which the horizon is completely visible around the observer?
When does the full Moon phase occur?
When the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon
What causes the seasons?
the tilt of the Earth's spin axis relative to the Earth's orbit
Which Greek astronomer is most associated with measuring the radius of the Earth?
What did Kepler accomplish?
1) Observed a mathematical relationship between orbital size and period
2) Inferred that planets move slower when further away from the Sun
3) Demonstrated that Mars moves in an elliptical orbit
Epicycles were added to the geocentric model of Ptolemy to account for...
retrograde motion of the planets
Galileo made many important discoveries when he used a telescope to look at the sky for the first time. Which one was the most convincing in persuading his ;earned colleagues that the Solar system was heliocentric?
He observed that Venus went through phases similar to our Moon
What did Newton accomplish?
1) Discovered the laws of motion
2) Derived calculus
3) Discovered the universal law of gravitation
4) He showed the path for two objects moving under the influence of gravity must have the shape of a conic section
Radio waves travel through space at what speed?
at the speed of light
Newton's generalization of Kepler's third law allows astronomers to determine what?
the mass of celestial objects
In 1675, Romer measured the speed of light by...
timing eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, which appeared to occur later when the Earth was farther from Jupiter
Who first showed the light was a wave?
A perfect blackbody is so named because it...
absorbs all radiation falling on it and reflects none
The energy flux from a star is the...
average amount of energy emitted by each square meter of the star's surface each second
The intersection of the plane of the Earth's orbit and the plane of the Moon's orbit is called the...
line of nodes
The law which relates the peak wavelength of light emitted by a hot object to its temperature i known as...
Who showed the light is an electromagnetic wave?
If an object that is emitting green light is traveling towards you at high speed, the color of the light you observe will be shifted toward the...
blue end of the visible spectrum
In the Bohr model of the atom, when a hydrogen atom emits a photon of light, an electron will "hop" to a...
lower energy level