This Neo-Freudian proposed the popular idea of the inferiority complex and believed that much of our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority.
Horney Maslow Adler Jung
Jorge's boss reprimanded him for an accounting error in front of his coworkers. When Jorge returned home from his job, he yelled at his wife for not having dinner ready. His wife then scolded the children for leaving their toys all over the house. These events best illustrate the use of a defense mechanism known as:
Dr. O'Higgins believes that the study of personality should focus on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences. Dr. O'Higgins probably would identify with the _____ perspective on personality.
social cognitive psychoanalytic humanistic trait
A person's score on an extraversion test does not neatly predict how sociable that person will be on any given occasion. This observation is most clearly highlighted by ________ theories.
social-cognitive trait psychodynamic humanistic
Elsa is a 50-year-old teacher who is openly gay. According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), Elsa's homosexuality:
is classified as an illness. The APA has no opinion about homosexuality. is NOT classified as an illness. does NOT put her at greater risk for mental health problems.
is NOT classified as an illness.
He insisted that madness is not demon possession but a sickness of the mind caused by severe stresses and inhumane conditions.
Tuke Freud Walters Pinel
According to your textbook, DSM-5 has been criticized for:
including eating disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and social anxiety disorder as mental disorders. including some conditions that are too "normal" to be considered disorders, such as extreme sadness related to bereavement. representing the consensus of a wide range of mental health professionals from many different organizations and perspectives. not including homosexuality as a mental disorder.
including some conditions that are too "normal" to be considered disorders, such as extreme sadness related to bereavement.
According to the text, the mass-killing shooters have which of the following in common.
those with psychological disorders. young males. older men with psychological disorders. young women with gang affiliation.
The onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder occurs around:
the late twenties and early thirties. the late teens and twenties. late childhood and the early teens. the early teens and late teens.
the late teens and twenties.
____________ is like a warning light in a car. When it is evident, it is telling us to stop and take protective measures.
Sadness Alliance Positive regard Desensitization
The DSM-5's new category of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder will likely:
increase the number of people diagnosed with mood disorders. reduce the number of child and adolescent bipolar diagnoses. pathologize the overactivity of young children. create a larger gender gap in diagnoses of bipolar disorder.
reduce the number of child and adolescent bipolar diagnoses
The risk of suicide is greatest for those diagnosed with depression when they:
are experiencing the deepest lows. are started on medication. begin to rebound and become capable of following through. begin to descend into the depths of depression.
begin to rebound and become capable of following through.
While researchers have discovered that there are an excessive number of receptor sites for _________________, it is not the only neurotransmitter involved in schizophrenia.
GABA serotonin norepinephrine dopamine
Schizophrenia victims have difficulty focusing attention. This is most likely to be related to a smaller-than-normal:
Of all the twins who share identical genes with a schizophrenia victim, about ________ do not themselves develop schizophrenia.
one-fourth one-half one-fifth one-third
Miguel's wife brought him to the emergency room because Miguel could not remember his name, the names of his family members, where he worked, or any other information he should easily be able to remember. Extensive tests at the hospital indicated that Miguel's memory problems were not due to an injury, an illness, drugs, or any other physical or medical condition. A clinical psychologist suggested that Miguel might be suffering from:
William, an airplane pilot, is unable to remember anything of a bombing raid in which his plane was severely damaged and two crew members were killed. Because he himself suffered no physical injuries, psychologists suspect that William probably suffers from:
a phobia. bipolar disorder. a dissociative disorder. panic disorder.
a dissociative disorder
In ______________, the affected person is aggressive and ruthless, and shows no sign of having a conscience that would inhibit wrongdoing.
Gene has always had trouble with her weight. She was not breast-fed when she was an infant and seems to overcompensate now. Which psychosexual stage is Gene fixated in?
genital anal phallic oral
The collective unconscious is to _____ as the inferiority complex is to _____.
Karen Horney; Carl Jung Carl Jung; Karen Horney Alfred Adler; Sigmund Freud Carl Jung; Alfred Adler
Carl Jung; Alfred Adler
The proper order of Freud's psychosexual stages is:
anal, oral, phallic, latency, and genital. oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. oral, anal, phallic, genital, and latency. oral, anal, latency, phallic, and genital.
oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
In a psychology class debate on the humanistic perspective, you need to take the opposing view and rebut its positive aspects. Which of the following criticisms of the humanistic perspective can you cite?
It emphasizes unconscious motivations too heavily. Its concepts are too precise and specific. It emphasizes collectivism too heavily. The descriptions of self-actualizing people reflect Maslow's personal values.
The descriptions of self-actualizing people reflect Maslow's personal values.
According to Allport, personality should be described in terms of:
self-actualization. traits. the unconscious. self-concept.
Which approach to personality focuses primarily on describing individual differences?
the psychoanalytic perspective the trait perspective the social cognitive perspective the humanistic perspective
the trait perspective
Lately, Harold and Grant cannot get along. Harold often expects the worst of people, and yesterday he thought Grant was mad at him. As a result, Harold ignored Grant's phone calls and other attempts at conversation, angering Grant. But in truth, Harold created the situation to which he was reacting. This is an example of:
linguistic determinism. reciprocal determinism. attributional style. social loafing.
Nicole refuses to leave her house because she is fearful of being exposed to germs. Nicole's behavior is _____ because it interferes with normal day-to-day life.
disturbed dysfunctional stressful maladaptive
The anterior cingulate cortex is especially likely to be hyperactive in those with:
Walter, age 75, lost his wife to a heart attack two years ago and most of his friends have passed on. His children live in other states and he has no pets. In terms of risk factors for suicide, Walter is:
LESS likely to attempt suicide since he is living by himself. EQUALLY as likely to attempt suicide as the general population. MORE likely to attempt suicide, because the suicide rate surges among older men. LESS likely to attempt suicide, because his energy and initiative are rebounding.
MORE likely to attempt suicide, because the suicide rate surges among older men.
In terms of pervasiveness, ____________ is to psychological disorders as the common cold is to mild physical illnesses.
According to Freud, this part of the personality contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy the basic sexual and aggressive drives.
the id the phallic the superego the ego
Eli has always been an extravert. There is some evidence that people like Eli seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low. For example, extraverts:
have greater levels of norepinephrine. exhibit less activity in a frontal lobe area involved in behavior inhibition. exhibit more activity in a frontal lobe area involved in behavior inhibition. have lower levels of serotonin.
exhibit less activity in a frontal lobe area involved in behavior inhibition
Rhonda feels confident in her ability to dance the part of Clara in The Nutcracker ballet. Albert Bandura would say that Rhonda is showing a high level of:
Psychology's concern with people's sense of self dates back to:
Carl Rogers. Sigmund Freud. William James. Gordon Allport.
What is the most likely trigger for the few people with psychological disorders who do commit violent acts?
access to guns substance abuse the predisposition to violent behavior being agitated by others
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder plagues some ___ percent of children and the appearance of the disorder occurs from ages ____ to 17.
11; 4 9; 7 5; 7 15; 7
Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when she approaches any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear is the result of a traumatic childhood boating accident. The therapist's suggestion reflects a ___________ perspective.
learning biological psychoanalytic humanistic
A learning theory would be most likely to emphasize the role of ________ in the onset of anxiety disorders.
An effective way to break the cycle of depression is to explain stressful events in terms that are:
stable and specific. specific and temporary. temporary and global. global and stable.
specific and temporary
Billy has an identical twin who was recently diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Research suggests that the chances are __________ that Billy will also suffer from bipolar disorder at some point in his life.
7 in 10 1 in 10 5 in 10 9 in 10
7 in 10
The DSM-5's new category of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder will likely:
reduce the number of child and adolescent bipolar diagnoses. increase the number of people diagnosed with mood disorders. create a larger gender gap in diagnoses of bipolar disorder. pathologize the overactivity of young children.
reduce the number of child and adolescent bipolar diagnoses.
According to DSM-5, children who were once given the diagnosis of bipolar disorder are not likely to be given the diagnosis of:
persistent mood disorder. major depression. mania. disruptive mood dysregulation disorder.
disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
Catatonia is characterized by:
delusions of persecution. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person. periods of immobility or excessive, purposeless movement. hyperactive, wildly optimistic states of emotion.
periods of immobility or excessive, purposeless movement.
Frank was seen laughing inappropriately in the library and he appeared to be responding to internal stimuli. On the bus home, he was crying uncontrollably and suddenly became angered when a fellow passenger offered him a tissue. His excess of inappropriate behavior is known as:
Early signs of antisocial behavior in children include:
high levels of stress hormones. high concern for social rewards. slow development of conditioned fears. having a sense of social responsibility.
slow development of conditioned fears
Noah's therapist suggests that Noah developed a dissociative identity disorder in order to misbehave without feeling a strong sense of personal shame. The therapist's suggestion most directly reflects a ________ perspective.
Personality disorders can be classified into three clusters. One cluster expresses anxiety, such as that exhibited in ______________ personality disorder. People with this personality disorder are so fearful of rejection that it predisposes them to withdraw from society.
narcissistic borderline avoidant antisocial
Last week Tate went into the hospital for a painful medical procedure. Amazingly, he did not seem worried beforehand, and he showed no signs of autonomic nervous system arousal. In addition, Tate seems to lack a conscience for wrongdoing. It is very likely that Tate would be diagnosed as having:
Ever since childhood, Jaime has been eccentric and has demonstrated odd behavior. She exhibits emotionless disengagement to such a great degree that she would likely be diagnosed with _______ personality disorder.
avoidant narcissistic schizotypal antisocial
The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of:
self-actualization. behavioral consistency. self-transcendence. moral integrity.
According to Carl Jung, the collective unconscious:
is the source of sexual and aggressive instinctual drives. is the part of the unconscious mind that reflects human evolutionary history and is common to all people. is analogous to Freud's concept of the preconscious. gives rise to two personality types, the introvert and the extravert.
is the part of the unconscious mind that reflects human evolutionary history and is common to all people.
Abraham Maslow suggested that individuals who are open, spontaneous, and not paralyzed by the opinions of others display:
an external locus of control. self-actualization. reaction formation. extraversion.
The ______________ attempts to classify people according to Carl Jung's personality types.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Stanford-Binet test Rorschach inkblot test Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Trait theorists have been criticized for
overestimating the importance of reciprocal determinism on adult personality traits. overestimating the consistency of behavior from one situation to another. underestimating the extent to which people differ from one another. underestimating the potential influence of biological factors on personality development.
overestimating the consistency of behavior from one situation to another.
_________ is the defense mechanism that occurs when people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
Bonnie is afraid to express anger toward her overbearing and irritating supervisor. Instead, she is critical of her children. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie's reaction to her children illustrates:
In contrast to Freud, which of the following did psychoanalyst Karen Horney emphasize as important during personality development?
sexual conflicts during the adolescent years our desire for love and security unconditional love and acceptance striving for superiority
our desire for love and security
Freud's psychoanalytic theory includes ideas about:
an unconscious region of the mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms. trait dimensions (for example, introverted-extraverted or stable-unstable). a characteristic pattern of behavior or disposition. self-actualization and fulfilling one's potential
an unconscious region of the mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms.
Angela remembers a dream in which she boarded a train that entered a dark tunnel. According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the dream images that Angela remembers, such as the train and the tunnel, are called the _____ content.
repressed manifest latent sublimated
According to Albert Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among:
self-concept, self-actualization, and self-transcendence. behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events. the id, ego, and superego. thoughts, emotions, and actions.
behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events.
Sarah's optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This best illustrates:
the spotlight effect. unconditional positive regard. reciprocal determinism. the self-reference phenomenon.
Albert Bandura's social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of: