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Biology Unit 3-The Molecules of Cells
Terms in this set (146)
Organic compounds are __________based molecules.
Why are carbons the lead players in the chemistry in life?
Because carbon has 4 electrons on its valence shell that holds up to 8, carbon completes its outer shell by sharing electrons with atoms in 4 covalent bonds. Thus, each carbon atom is a connecting point from which molecule can branch in up to four directions.
Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen molecules are called_____________________.
What is a carbon skeleton?
It is the chain of carbons in an organic molecule.
Carbons skeletons can vary in____________.
They may be _________________or __________________.
They may have ________________.
They may be arranged in____________.
Compounds with the same formula but with different structural arrangements are called ______________.
One isomer of methamphetamine is the addictive illegal drug known as "crank". The other is a medicine for sinus congestion. How can you explain the differing effects of the two isomers?
Isomers have different structures, or shapes, and the shape of a molecule usually determine the way it functions in the body.
The unique properties of an organic compound depend not only to the size and shape of their carbon skeletons but also on the groups of atoms that are attached to the skeleton. These groups affect a molecule's function by participating in chemical reactions in characteristic ways are called___________________.
The ____________group consists of an hydrogen group bonded to an oxygen atom.
The ____________group consists of a carbon atom bonded to an oxygen atom by a double bond.
The ____________group consists of a carbon atom bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
The ____________group consists of a nitrogen bonded to two hydrogens.
The ____________group consists of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms.
The ____________group consists of a carbon atom bonded to three hydrogens.
Identify the chemical groups that do not contain carbon.
hydroxyl, phosphate, amino groups
Cells make up most of their macromolecules by joining smaller molecules into chains that are called_______________.
A_____________________ is a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar building blocks strung together.
The building blocks of polymers are called_______________.
Cells link together to form polymers by a ________________, a reaction that removes a water molecule. For each monomer added to the chain, a water molecule is released.
Describe the process of the dehydration reaction.
The unlinked monomer loses a hydrogen atom and the short polymer loses a hydroxide, thus by forming a water molecule that is released. As this occurs, new covalent bonds are formed linking the two monomers.
The reaction of digestion, that we break polymers with is called ___________________.
hydrolysis (hydro=water, lyse=to break)
Describe the process of the hydrolysis reaction.
The bond between the monomers is broken by the addition of a water molecule by the hydroxyl group from the water attaching one molecule and the hydrogen from the water attaching the adjacent molecule.
Why are lactose intolerant people unable to break such a bund in sugar lactose?
Since they are lactose intolerant, they lack the enzyme lactase. They cannot perform a hydrolysis reaction because it requires the enzyme lactase.
Both dehydration and hydrolysis reactions require the help of _________ to make and break bonds.
________________are specialized macromolecules that speed up the reactions in cells.
The key to the great diversity of polymers is ___________. variation in the sequence in which monomers are strung together.
Molecules of ______________,__________________, and __________ are called macromolecules.
nucleic acids, carbohydrates, proteins
Suppose you eat some cheese. What reactions must occur for the protein of the cheese to be broken down into amino acid monomers and then for these monomers to be converted to proteins in your body?
In digestion, the proteins are broken down into amino acids by hydrolysis reactions.
New proteins are formed in your body cells from these monomers in dehydration reactions.
The carbohydrate monomers are______________, which are single unit sugars.
Most names for sugar end in _____________.
What are the three monosaccharides?
glucose, fructose, galactose
glucose, fructose, galactose are_____________, they differ in the arrangement of their atoms, in this case ___________ groups.
The two trademarks of sugar are_________________ and a ________________________.
a number of hydroxyl groups, a carbonyl group
Monosaccharides, particularly ______________ are the main fuel for cellular work.
Many monosaccharides form __________.
Cells construct a _______________ from two monosaccharide monomers by a dehydration reaction.
Maltose is formed from ________________ molecules.
Sucrose is formed from a ______________ and a _______________ molecule.
Lactose is formed from a __________ and a _____________ molecule.
__________, which is common in germinating seeds, is used in making beer, malt candy, and malt milkshakes.
________________ is the sugar in milk.
______________ provides a source of energy to the raw materials of the plant.
______________ are macromolecules, polymers of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides linked together by dehydration reactions.
Polysaccharides may function as________________ or __________________.
storage molecules, structural compounds
The three common types of polysaccharides are _______________, ________________, and __________________.
starch, cellulose, glycogen
______________ is the plant energy molecule. Plants store glucose in it.
Starch is _______________ or ___________________.
branched or unbranched
___________________ is highly branched.
_______________ is the animal energy molecule.
Most of our glycogen is stored in our ________ and _______________, which hydrolyse the glycogen to release glucose when needed.
liver, muscle cells
_____________ is the most abundant organic compound on earth. It is the major component of tough plant cell walls. Thus, it's function is _______________.
cellulose, plant structure
Describe the structure of cellulose.
Cellulose is long chains arranged parallel to each other, held together with hydrogen bonds between cellulose molecules, forming cable-like microfibrils. These chains
Is cellulose a nutrient for humans, if not why?
Animals don't have the enzymes that can hydrolyze the glucose linkages in cellulose. Therefore, cellulose is not a nutrient for humans, although it does contribute to the digestive system health.
The cellulose that passes unchanged through your digestive track is referred to as ________________. Fresh fruits, vegetables, and grains are rich in fiber.
____________ also digest cellulose, helping to recycle its chemical elements within ecosystems.
Why are almost all carbohydrate molecules hydrophilic?
Almost all carbohydrate molecules are hydrophilic owing to the many hydroxyl groups attached to their sugar monomers.
Compare and contrast starch and cellulose, two plant polysaccharides.
Both are polymers of glucose but their functions and structures are different. Cellulose is the main component of though plant cell walls, thus is responsible for plant structure. On the other hand, plants use starch molecules to store glucose. Thus, starch is the plant energy molecule. Cellulose has long chains with hydrogen bonds between cellulose molecules, arranged parallel to each other. Starch is branched or unbranched.
Explain cotton towels being water absorbent?
Cotton towels are mostly cellulose, which are hydrophilic- water loving owing to the many hydroxyl groups attached to their sugar monomers. Thus, they are hydrophilic and water absorbent.
______________ consist mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by non polar covalent bonds.
Lipids do not mix well with _________.
Lipids are_____________ in contrast to carbohydrates and most of the other biological molecules.
How do ducks float on water?
They spread oils from their feathers. Oil makes feather repel water. Therefore, the duck floats.
Lipids are not __________________ nor______________.
huge macromolecules, polymers built from similar monomers
________ is a large lipid consists of 3 fatty acids and a glycerol.
____________ is an alcohol with a OH group.
__________ consists of a hydrocarbon chain and a carboxyl group (COOH).
a fatty acid
__________ are usually 16-18 carbon atoms length.
What is the reason fats being hydrophobic?
The non polar hydrocarbon chains are the reason fats are hydrophobic.
Linking ___________ to a glycerol produces a fat. Thus, the word _____________ is a synonym for fat.
3 fatty acids, triglyceride
Some fatty acids contain one or more ____________ which causes bends or kinks on the hydrocarbon chain. These fatty acids are called _______________________.
double bonds, unsaturated fatty acids
Each________________ of the double bond on the hydrocarbon chain of an unsaturated fatty acid have one fewer hydrogen atom.
How does the structure of a polyunsaturated fatty acids differs from a monounsaturated fatty acid?
A poly unsaturated fatty acid has more than one double bonds on the hydrocarbon chain as opposed to the monounsaturated fatty acids with one double bond.
Fatty acids with no double bonds on their hydrocarbon chain have the maximum value of hydrogen atoms and are called _______________________.
saturated fatty acids
Compare and contrast unsaturated and saturated fatty acids.
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds in their tails, thus they have kinks in their hydrocarbon chains. Each carbon atom of these double bonds have one fewer hydrogen atom. The kinks on the hydrocarbon chain prevent the unsaturated fatty acids from packing together and solidifying at room temperature. They can be found in vegetable oils such as olive oil and corn oil.
Saturated Fatty Acids
They have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Since they don't have double bonds on their hydrocarbon chains they can pack closely together. They are solid at room temperature. Most animal fats, butter, beef oil are examples.
When unsaturated fatty acids have been converted to saturated fatty acids by adding hydrogen, this process is called ____________________.
Hydrogenation creates ________________, which cause health risks.
Unsaturated fatty acids called _____________ are found in certain nuts, plant oils, and fatty fish and appear to protect against cardiovascular disease.
omega-3 fatty acids
What is the main function of fats?
It is the long term of energy storage?
A gram fat stores ore than twice as much energy as a gram of a ____________________.
What is the downside of energy storage in the from of fats?
It takes more effort for a person to burn off excess fat.
In addition to storing energy, fatty tissue cushions vital organs and _____________________.
insulates the body
Cells could not exist without_____________, the major component of cell membranes.
Describe the structure of a phospholipid.
Phospholipids contain two fatty acids, a glycerol, and a phosphate group, which is negatively charged, attached to the third carbon of the glycerol.
Why is the structure a great example of how form fits function?
The hydrophilic ends (heads) and the hydrophobic ends (tails) of multiple molecules assemble in a bilayer of phospholipids to form the membrane. the hydrophobic tails of fatty acids cluster in the centre, he hydrophilic phosphate heads face the watery environment on either side of the membrane.
________________are lipids in which the carbon skeleton forms for fused rings.
________________ is a common component in animal cell membranes, and animal cells use it as a starting material for making other steroids, including sex hormones.
Nearly every dynamic function in our body depends on __________________.
Of all life's molecules, ________________are structurally the most diverse and elaborate
A protein is a polymer of _________________.
______________________ are the monomers of polypeptides.
Protein diversity is based on the arrangements of a common set of just_________________________.
20 amino acid monomers
Amino acids all have an _______________ and a ________________ group.
amino group, carboxyl group
Both of these functional groups are covalently bonded to a central carbon, called the ___________________.
A ________________ and a _____________ are also bonded to the alpha carbon.
hydrogen atom, R-group
What determines the specific properties of each of the 20 amino acids that are found in proteins?
The composition and the structure of the R group determines the specific properties of amino acids.
The ___________________ differs with each amino acid.
When is an amino acid hydrophilic?
An amino acid is polar with a hydroxyl group in its R-group and thus is hydrophilic.
When is an amino acid hydrophobic?
An amino acid is hydrophobic when its R group is non polar and thus hydrophobic
Amino acids with __________ and _________________ R-groups help proteins dissolve in aqueous solutions.
Cells join amino acids together by a __________________ reaction that links the ____________ of one amino acid to the hydroxyl group of the next one as a water molecule is removed.
dehydration reaction, carboxyl
The covalent linkage between two amino acids are called _______________________.
What is a dipeptide?
Made from two amino acids
A ________________ is a chain of amino acids.
To release the amino acids from a polypeptide by ______________ , a molecule must of H2O must be added back to break each peptide bond.
Each polypeptide has a unique sequence of _____________________.
Why is a long polypeptide chain of specific sequence is not the same as a protein?
Because a functioning protein is one or more polypeptide chains precisely coiled, twisted, and folded into a unique 3D shape.
The most important role of proteins are as ___________, as the chemical catalysts that speed up and regulate all chemical reactions in cells.
__________________are found in hair and the fibers that make up connective tissues such as tendons and ligaments
_______________ can be found in muscle cells.
Antibodies of the immune system is an example for the __________________.
_______________________ are many of the hormones, chemical messengers that help coordinate body activities between cells
________________ are built in cell membranes and transmit signals into cells.
Give examples to transport proteins.
-Hemoglobin in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to working muscles and tissues throughout the body
-Moving sugar molecules into cells for energy
Ovalbumin, the protein of egg white serves as a source of amino acids for developing embryos. This is an example of ______________________ proteins.
The functions of all these type of proteins depend on their _______________________.
Most enzymes and other proteins are ______________.
Structural proteins such as those making up hair, tendons and ligaments are typically long and thin, thus called _________ proteins.
The dependence of protein function on a proteins specific shape becomes clear when proteins are altered. Why?
Because a protein's shape determines its function.
In a process called _____________________polypeptide chains unravel, losing their specific shape, and as a result their function.
What can denature proteins?
-hydrolytic enzymes (breaks the peptide bonds between the amino acids on the primary structure)
-changes in salt concentration
Describe the primary structure of proteins.
-The primary structure is its unique sequence of amino acids.
-determined by inherited genetic information
-even a slight change in the primary structure may affect a protein's overall shape, thus its ability to function.
-Held together by peptide (covalent) bonds
List the protein levels of structure from least inclusive to most inclusive.
Describe the secondary structure.
-Parts of the polypeptide coil or fold into patterns.
-Alpha helix and beta pleated sheet formed by hydrogen bonding between atoms of the polypeptide backbone.
-Held together by hydrogen bonding.
Describe the tertiary structure.
-The overall 3D shape of a polypeptide, which determines its function.
-Compact arrangement of beta pleated sheet and alpha helix regions.
-R-group interaction are involved and the tertiary structure results from the interactions between R groups.
-Hydrogen bonding between polar side chains
-İonic bonding between charged, ionized R groups
-Covalent bonds called disulfide bridges R-S-S-R
Describe the quaternary structure.
More than one polypeptide chains/subunits forming a protein.
Some _____________ proteins, such as the structural protein of hair, have the alpha helix structure over most of many globular proteins.
_______________________ make up the core of many globular proteins.
beta pleated sheets
If the primary structure of a protein determines the shape, what determines the primary structure?
The amino acid sequence is programmed by a discrete unit of inheritance known as a gene.
Genes consist of ___________.
_________ is one of the two types of polymers called nucleic acids.
Unique among molecules, DNA provides information for_____________________.
its own replication
As a cell divides, its genetic information is passed to __________________. These instructions program all of a cell's activities.
each daughter cell
Genes present in DNA do NOT build ______________ directly. Instead, they work through RNA's.
The DNA is _________________ into RNA.
The RNA moves out of the nucleus and interacts with the protein making machinery of the cell. There instructions written with the language of nucleic acids are translated into the __________________.
In prokaryotic cells, which lack nuclei, both transcription and translation take place within the _________________of the cell.
The monomers that make up nucleic acids are ________________.
Describe the structure of DNA nucleotides.
-Five carbon sugar (deoxyribose)
-A nitrogenous base bonded to one side of the five carbon sugar (A,T,C,G)
-A negatively charged phosphate group to the other side of the deoxyribose.
Describe the structure of RNA nucleotides.
-A nitrogenous base bonded to one side of the five carbon sugar (A,U,C,G)
-RNA nucleotides have uracil instead of thymine.
-negatively charged phosphate group
Compare and contrast RNA and DNA.
RNA usually consists of a single polynucleotide strand, but DNA is double helix, in which two nucleotides wrap around each other.
How is the double helix stable if the DNA chains are held together by hydrogen bonds?
These bonds are individually weak but collectively they zip the double strands together into a very stable double helix.
Because of the base pairing rules, the two strands of the double helix are ______________________.
___________________________ is the key to how a cell make two identical copies of its DNA every time it divides.
Complementary base pairing
______________________ accounts for the function of transmitting genetic information whenever a cell reproduces.
The structure of DNA
An organism's _____________ determine the protein and thus the structures and functions of its body.
What roles do complementary base pairing play in the functioning of nucleic acids?
Complementary base pairing makes it possible for the precise replication of DNA, ensuring that the genetic information is transmitted every time a cell divides. It also ensures that accurate information is carried for the synthesis of proteins.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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