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AP Biology Test Prep Chapter 14: Plants

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Roots
Portion of the plant that is below ground.
Shoots
All parts of the plant above ground.
Collenchyma Cells
Live plant cells that provide flexible and mechanical support, often found in stems and leaves.
Parenchyma Cells
Plant cells that play a role in photosynthesis, storage, and secretion.
Mesophyll Cells
A type of paranchyma cells that contain many chloroplasts and host the majority of photosynthesis.
Sclerenchyma Cells
Plant cells that function as protection for seeds and mechanical support for the adult plant.
Xylem
The "superhighway," or important part of the vascular tissue in plants, through which water and nutrients travel through the plant from the roots. Also functions as a support structure that strengthens the plant.
Vessel Elements
Xylem cells that are more efficient in water transport in angiosperms.
Tracheid Cells
Less efficient cells that are impermeable to water; found in the xylem.
Phloem
Important part of plant vascular tissue that functions to transport sugars from their production site to the rest of the plant.
Sieve-tube Elements
Functionally mature cells of the phloem that are alive.
Epidermis
The protective outer coating of plants.
Guard Cells
Cells within the epidermis of plants that control the opening and closing of the stomata using turgor pressure.
Root Hairs
Hairs extending off the surface root tips that increase the surface area for absorption of water and nutrients from the soil.
Brush Border
Large numbers of microvilli that increase the surface area of the small intestine to improve absorption efficiency.
Taproot System
System of roots found in many dicots that starts as one thick root and divides into many smaller lateral roots, which serve as an anchor for the plant.
Lateral Roots
Roots that serve to hold a plant in place in the soil.
Fibrous Root System
Root system found in monocots that provides the plant with a very strong anchor without going very deep into the soil.
Endodermis
Cells that line the innermost layer of the cortex in plants that give rise to the casparian strip.
Casparian Strip
Obstacle that blocks the passage of water through the endodermis of plants.
Vascular Cylinder
Structure in plants that is composed of cells that produce the lateral roots of the plant.
Pericycle
The outermost layer of the vascular cylinder of a root, where lateral roots originate.
Meristemic Cells
Cells that allow plants to grow indeterminately.
Apical Meristem
Region at the tip of the roots and shoots where plant growth is concentrated and many actively dividing cells can be found.
Primary Plant Growth
Initial increase in the length of a plant.
Lateral Meristems
Cells that extend all the way through the plant from roots to shoots and provide the secondary growth that increases the girth of a plant.
Secondary Plant Growth
Additional growth that leads to an increase in plant girth.
Root Cap
Protective structure found around the apical meristem of a root that keeps it together as it pushes through the soil.
Zone of Cell Division
Region at the tip a root formed by the actively dividing cells of the apical meristems.
Zone of Elongation
Region in which the cells elongate tremendously during plant growth.
Zone of Maturation
Region in the plant where cells differentiate into their final forms.
Cuticle
Waxy covering the protects terrestrial plants against water loss composed of Cutin and Wax.
Palisade Mesophyll
Host of many chloroplasts and much of the photosynthesis of a leaf.
Spongy Mesophyll
Region of a plant where the cells are more loosely arranged, aiding in the passage of CO2 to cells performing photosynthesis.
Bundle-Sheath Cells
Cells that are tightly wrapped around the veins of a leaf. They are also the site of the Calvin Cycle in C4 plants.
Cutin
Waxy coat that protects plants.
Vascular Cambium
A cylinder of tissue that extends the length of the stem and root and gives rise to the secondary xylem and phloem.
Cork Cambium
Area that produces a thick cover for stems and roots and produces tissue that replaces dried-up epidermis lost during secondary growth.
Abscisic Acid
Plant hormone that inhibits cell growth, prevents premature germination, and stimulates closing of the stomata.
Auxin
Plant hormone that leads to elongation of stems and plays a role in phototropism and gravitropism.
Cytokinins
Plant hormone that promotes cell division and leaf enlargement, and slows down the aging of leaves.
Ethylene
Plant hormone that initiates the ripening of fruit and the dropping of leaves and flowers from trees.
Gibberellins
Plant hormone that assists in stem elongation and induces growth in dormant seeds, buds, and flowers.
Tropism
Plant growth that occurs in response to an environmental stimulus such as sunlight or gravity.
Gravitropism
A plant's growth response to gravitational force. Auxin and gibberellins are involved in this response.
Phototropism
A plant's growth in response to light. Auxin is the hormone involved in this process.
Thigmotropism
A plant's growth in response to touch.
Coleoptile
Protective structure found around a grass seedling.
Circadian Rhythm
A physiologic cycle that occurs in time increments that are roughly equivalent to the length of a day.
Photoperiodism
The response by a plant to the change in the length of days.
Florigen
Hormone thought to assist in the blooming of flowers.
Phytochrome
Important pigment in the process of flowering because it leads to the production of florigen.
Short-Day Plants
Plants, such as pointsettias, that flower if exposed to nighttime conditions longer than a critical period length.
Long-Day Plants
Plants, such as spinach, which flower if exposed to a night that is shorter than a critical period.
Root Pressure
Driving force that contributes to the movement of water through the xylem of a plant.
Capillary Action
A phenomenon associated with surface tension and resulting in the elevation or depression of liquids in capillaries
Cohesion-Tension Theory
Causes most of the xylem movement, as H20 evaporates from open stomata, water is pulled up capillaries to replace what was lost
Translocation
Movement of carbohydrates through the phloem.