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766 terms

Music hum madness rev

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PLAY
dynamics/volume
intensity of sound
rubato
..., a flexible tempo using slight variations of speed to enhance musical expression
presto furioso
fast and furious
syllabic singing
singing one note per syllable
functional harmony
each chord assumed a special role (or function) in relation to the tonic chord (the chord on the home pitch); when one chord follows another in Baroque music, it does so in a newly predictable and purposeful way;
a method of organizing large-scale pieces of music
Ligeti
György Sándor Ligeti (May 28, 1923 - June 12, 2006) was a composer, born in a Hungarian Jewish family in Transylvania, Romania. He briefly lived in Hungary before later becoming an Austrian citizen. Many of his works are well known in classical music circles, but to the general public, he is best-known for the various pieces featured in the Stanley Kubrick films 2001: A Space Odyssey, The Shining, and Eyes Wide Shut
tempo
speed of a piece, fixed rate of the beat, classically written in Italian
atonal music
music built on structures other than tonality
parallel organum
2 voices moving in parallel
song cycle (genre)
songs unified on subject
plainchant/gregorian chants (genre)
unaccompanied church music sung in relation to liturgical words
melismas
...
Program Music
Instumental music that has literary or pictorial associations.
syncopation
emphasis of non-strong beats
points of imitation
most pervasive Renaissance technique and texture, where the repeated theme continuously changes (unlike Baroque fugue)
chamber music
music written for small groups or ensembles, designed to be played inside rooms on secular occasions
Prokofiev
Russian- Neo-Classic style, atonal music-"Peter and the Wolf"
Interval
distance or gap between two pitches
interval
distance or gap between two pitches
basso obstinato
repeated bass line
Kyrie
only Mass Ordinary prayer in Greek
accent
...
opera
...
dynamics
intensity of sound. another name for volume
octave
...
melody
series of organized pitches
Polyphony
more than one note/melody at the same time
Ex: Josquin's "Ava Maria" (pre Council of Trent)
John Dunstaple
English composer who brought 3rds to the continent in the 1420s, while England was occupying area in Burgundy and attempting to seize French throne. employer executed Joan of Arc.
resolution
the transition of a tense harmony/chord (dissonance) into an expected harmony/chord of repose (consonance)
aria
A vocal number for solo singer and orchestra, generally in an opera, cantata, or oratorio (88,141)
new and better instruments
silver flute
english horn
ophicleide
keyed trumpet
da capo aria
An aria that is sung in ABA form, one in which the A section is sung at the end. (141)
Carolingian Empire
founded by Charlemagne c. 800, later known as HRE
cadence
...
concerto grosso
Italian Baroque concerto for group of soloists, with first and last fast movements in ritornello form
Tchaikovsky
important Russian composer whose works are noted for their expressive melodies (1840-1893)
homorhythm
all melodic lines share the same rhythm (have silences and can pick out individual lines)
chorale
A four-part harmonization of a Lutheran hymn, such as Bach composed in his Cantata No. 4 and other works. (150)
imitative polyphony
delayed of same melody
entrainment
way of sensing the passage of time in segments that are hierarchically stacked
symphony (classical)
4 movements: fast, slow, minuet (or scherzo) fast
isorhythm
in 14th century music technique of repeating the identical rhythm for each section of a composition while the pitches are altered (60)
da capo
a direction to a performer to repeat from the beginning of a piece of music up to a later point. (141)
lied (genre)
short song with sophisticated poem
exposition
section in fugue where all voices enter in succession
Haydn
Rococo (18th c.); first high social position with just his genius; all musical forms; more than 100 symphonies; seriousness without gloom; "Father of Symphony"; "London Symphony" (Last 10)
tempo
speed of piece, fixed rate of the beat
Rhythm
1- organization of time in music; 2- a pattern of beats and pulses; 3- refers to values or length of a note or series of notes.
entrainment
way of sensing the passage of time in segments that are hierarchically stacked
simple meter
...
ternary form
A B A form
word painting
sounds match meaning of words
chromatic scale
all of the available notes in Western music. there are 12 and they consist of white and black keys on piano
Melisma
more than two notes per syllable
Ex:Anonymous "Viderunt Omnes"
counterpoint
the simultaneous sound of two or more melodies
delayed gratification
deference of resolution which generates suspense and attentiveness, adding aesthetic importance to long-awaited moment
point of imitation
declamation
...
Louis XIV
mid-17th century king with court composers writing dance suites (Lully)
measure/bar
single group or cycle of beats with its own downbeat
Conjunct Motion
means our melody move in steps or small intervals
major/minor
associated with positive and negative human emotions. central to emotional language of West
Bartok
Hungarian composer and pianist who collected Hungarian folk music
tocatta
an instrumental piece made to show off the virtuosity of the player. can replace an overture.
Diatonic Scale
one tonic at bottom, one at top of scale--7 notes in the diatonic scale. The 8th being tonic repeat.
tonality, tonal/harmonic language
entire system of standardized interrelationships between harmonies
fugue
A composition written systematically in imitative polyphony, usually with a single main theme, the ______ subject. (95,131)
Whole Tone Scale
A scale, sometimes by Debussy, comprising only 6 notes to the octave, each a whole tone apart
homophony
either a melody line above chords, or when all voices move together at same time
functional harmony
idea that all chords have relation to home tonic
ground bass
...
melismatic singing
singing multiple notes per syllable
strophic
repeated music for each stanza
string quartet
an instrumental group consisting of two violins, viola, and cello
Vivaldi
late Baroque composer famous for many dramatic concertos and use of Ritornello form. Inspired Bach.
meter
way in which pulses are arranged in each measure, usually in 3s or 4s (not 5s or 7s in Western music)
cello
An instrument in the violin family, known for its rich tone. Among the strings, it has the second-lowest range, higher only than the bass viol, and it has the lowest part in string quartets. Players hold the instrument between their knees to play it.
madrigal
...
French Baroque Music
stately and graceful style of baroque music with overtures and dance suites
harmony
functionality of chords, specific syntactical relationships between chords
overtones
...
beats
...
tonic/key
primary harmony and consonance of a piece
opera seria
serious opera
Puccini
Who was known for verismo?
percussion
timpani, cymbals, snare drum, xylophone, etc.
Ars Nova
musical movement developing free polyphony
Leonin, Perotin
composers and innovators of the Notre Dame School of Polyphony famous for organum
ars nova
Contemporary term for new 14th century polyphonic music that came after organum. (60)
harmony
functionality of chords, specific syntactical relationships between chords
mass (genre)
large scale religious piece
England
Romantic Opera never went where?
opera (form)
(intro=overture) (act I: [recitative] [aria] [rec] [aria] [chorus], etc.) (act II: same as I) (act III: same as I)
Josquin
composer ushering in Golden Age of Polyphony
Musorgsky
Russian musical nationalist
tune
...
minnesingers
...
concertato principle
Antiphonal music eventually developing into concerto/concerto grosso
German/flemish songs
romantic, dramatic, military or political in character
meter
describes how pulses are arranged in each measure
metronome
...
Gregorian chant/plainsong/plainchant
medieval chant without sense of recurring downbeats, first is without meter
Oratorio
Sacred drama or extended musical composition for solo singers, chorus, and orchestra that is performed without any action, scenery, or costume, in a church or concert hall, Handle, more religious
downbeat
first beat of a cycle
troubadours
alba
serenade
light piece for strings alone.
French overture
type of piece popularized by Lully, usually fond at beginning of dance suites and operas
homophony
musical texture consisting of multiple voices all sounding together at the same time
recitative
music + speech, expresses narrative
ritornello form
theme comes back again, often played by full orchestra. theme inserted between soloist and tutti in virtuosic fashion.
imitative polyphony
when various voices imitate each other at time intervals
melody
expansive
singable
wide range
more chromatic
Divine Office/Canonical Hours
holy times of day corresponding to set of prayers to be recited or chanted
recitative
half-singing half-reciting style of presenting words in an opera, cantata, oratorio etc. (88,141)
Motet
Religious song with emphasis on word
word painting
...
triple meter
meter of waltz
Palestrina
composer at end of Renaissance and Golden Age of Polyphony (1600) renowned for purity and smoothness
upbeats
weak or weak parts of beats
Tonic/Key
primary harmony and consonance of the piece.
canzona
imitation, what will become fugue
harpsichord
keyboard instrument; forerunner for the modern piano
repeated theme (not R)
ostinato
rhythm
generic term referring to temporal placement of musical events
cantata
A composition in several movements for solo voice, instruments, and perhaps also chorus. Depending on the text, ___________s are catigorized as secular or church ___________s. (149)
Ars Subtilior
musical movement developed around Avignon and including Ciconia
triple meter
meter of waltz
Syncopation
the accenting of certain beats of the meter that are ordinarily unaccented
sequence
one motive that oscillates throughout register
Handel
Late Baroque German composer (1685) worked mostly in England
rhythm
regular repetition of sound
mensural notation
notation style invented c. 1250 that can record any rhythm
octave
interval that produces perception of sameness
Program Symphony
Multimovement orchestral work. (Tells a story)
melismatic
many notes per syllable
Notre Dame School of Polyphony
where composers like Leonin and Perotin experimented with organum (1150-1250), increasing number of voices from 3 to 4. Developed repeating rhythmic patterns in triple meter, constituting the first metrical music.
Italian Baroque Music
dramatic and emotionally charged style of baroque music with concertos
motet
Early _______s were based on fragments of Gregorian chant but was quite secular. ______ means wordy in french. / By 16th century the term described a usually sacred vocal composition; they complemented mass, unlike mass the words varied significantly. (59,76)
dance suite
type of piece assimilated by German composers like Handel and Bach from France
consonance
...
dissonance
...
alba
...
organum
musician harmonizing with chant
monophony
...
dominant-tonic relationship
most common relationship between chords that leads to resolution
pizzicato
...
variation (form)
|:theme: ab:| |:var. 1: a'b':| |:var. 2: a''b'':| (coda) etc.
compound meter
combinations of duple and triple meter
Solo singing
This became a favorite genre.
monophony
single voice
pavan
...
opera
theatrical play set to music, falling on the aria-arioso-recitative spectrum. First staged c. 1600 as Humanist attempts to reconstruct Greek drama
ritornello form
melodic refrain around which baroque concertos are structured. played by tutti
Machaut
French medieval composer and poet (1300-1377)
upbeat
last beat of a cycle, which anticipates the downbeat
variations
...
measure/bar
temporal or notated unit consisting of a fixed number of beats equivalent to the meter
concerto grosso
group of soloists and orchestra.
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
Ordinary of Mass
estampies
...
Imitative Polyphony
same or similar melodies following in succession with some overlap
dominant-tonic relationship
most important syntactic relationship in Western tonal music
consonance
combination of pitches that sounds pleasing to the ear
Texture
relationship between melodies in a piece.
overture
orchestral music played at the beginning of an opera or oratorio. Except for "concert __________" which is same style but without following opera
lievemotif
melodic line that represents idea or character
triad
chord (combo of pitches) with three notes made up of 2 stacked thirds
interval
distance between two pitches
Incidental Music
Overture and a series of pieces performed between the acts of a play and during important scenes.
imitative polyphony
a texture in which the various lines sounding together use the same or fairly similar melodies with each overlapping the other
concertino
group of soloists in concerto grosso
concerto grosso
many soloists and orchestra
Ellington
American composer, pianist, and bandleader, recognized during his life as one of the most influential figures in jazz, if not in all American music. Ellington's reputation has increased since his death, including a special award citation from the Pulitzer Prize Board.
A. Corelli
made baroque sonatas popular, sound modern. he was a violinist, invented modern technique
Ground bass
This fact is dramatized by a musical form that is characteristically Baroque, the ground bass. This is music constructed from the bottom up. In
ground-bass form, the bass instruments play a single short melody many times, generating the same set of repeated harmonies above it (played by the continuo chord instruments). Over this ground bass, upper instruments or voices play (or improvise) different melodies or virtuoso passages, all adjusted to the harmonies determined by the bass.
conductor
no longer from the keyboard
all b/c of rubato (piano solo:gets crazy w/tons of ppl, someone has to be in charge)
Great Schism
1054 split, with Pope in Rome (becoming center of Catholicism) and Constantinope
chord progression
pattern of chords comprising entire harmonic content of song
Schoenberg
Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. Schoenberg was known for extending the traditionally opposed German Romantic traditions of both Brahms and Wagner, and also for his pioneering innovations in atonality. developed twelve-tone technique, a widely influential compositional method of manipulating an ordered series of all twelve notes in the chromatic scale. developing variation, and was the first modern composer to embrace ways of developing motives without resorting to the dominance of a centralized melodic idea.
major
triad with a raised middle note
tempo
speed
Ayers
simple songs for one voice accompanied by either other voices or instruments
keys
...
tutti
entire orchestra in a concerto, or the passages where the entire orchestra plays
octave
interval at the basis of Western European diatonic 7-note scale.
arioso
A singing style between recitative and aria. (90)
symphony (form)
sonata-fast,
variation-slow,
minuet (scherzo)-moderate,
sonata or rondo-fast
solo concerto
A large composition for orchestra and solo instrument. (120,188)
madrigal (genre)
cappella, just 4 voices, 1 voice/line
dissonance
chord felt to be unstable or tense with clashing or clangorous intervals
organum
one or more voices singing above lower voice, which slowly sings notes of plainchant, homophonic
dissonance
chord felt to be unstable or tense with clashing or clangorous intervals
Charlie Parker
a Kansas City, Kansas native became a leading force in the development of bebop during the 1940s.
Concert Overture
Might evoke a land-or seascape or embody a literary or patriotic idea. (Pulled from an opera and played as a concert piece)
chromatic scale
scale system where octave occurs at the 13th note.
Ars Subtilior
musical movement in the late 14th century meaning the "Subtle style." Developed the rhythmic independence introduced by Ars Nova.
Machaut
composer who wrote one of first polyphonic settings of Mass Ordinary
scale
...
concertato principle
developed by Giovanni Gabrieli in St. Mark's Basilica at beginning of Baroque (1600) by positioning groups of musicians in lofts.
neumes
visual markings in early chant that indicated small groups of 2-4 notes
triad
created by insertion of extra note between a 5th interval
Phrases
smaller units of melody with clear endings
polyphony
simultaneous interweaving of different melodic lines into a single whole
expressivo
expressively
ars nova
style of late medieval ages, increasing complexity of polyphonic elements
rhythmic modes
short patterns of rhythm borrowed from poetic metrical fee, in triple meter
Tone row
particular ordering of the twelve chromatic tones, from which all pitches in a twelve tone composition are derived.
Agnus Dei, Credo, Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus-Benedictus
prayers of the Mass Ordinary
meter
...
Disjunct Motion
melody moves in leaps or large intervals
responsorial chant
solo voice accompanied by chorus; from Hebrew cantillations
basso ostinato
...
Palestrina
Renaissance; choir master of St. Peter's and 2 others; singer in the Sistine Choir; Directed all music for Vatican; Conservative, order, proportion, clarity, musical tradition; "Missa Papae Marcelli"
ars antiqua
Contemporary term for 13th century organum during the 14th century. (60)
chamber music
music written for small groups or ensembles, designed to be played inside rooms on secular occasions
harmony
the chords that accompany the melody
a capella
singing without instrumental accompaniment, including most Medieval and Renaissance sacred music
polyphony
...
measure/bar
temporal or notated unit consisting of fixed number of beats equivalent to the meter, indicated by vertical lines
structural downbeat
significant musical arrival, usually a hypermetric downbeat accompanied by an important harmonic resolution
diminuendo
to grow softer
concerto (baroque)
soloist and orchestra, a "competition." usually three movements - fast, slow, fast. think of haydn + hummell
concertato principle
Antiphonal music eventually developing into concerto/concerto grosso
upbeat
last beat of a cycle, which anticipates the downbeat
Notation
Written representation of musical notes c: 1000 A.D.
Ex: Hildegard of Bingen
Terraced Dynamic
type of dynamics popular in Baroque- either or loud or soft
Chansons
popular songs in French (very narrative)
oratorio
like a religious opera, sung in an oratory. still made up of same parts, but no acting or staging. Messiah is an oratorio, was more popular that opera.
crescendo
grow louder
meter
sequence of regularly spaced accents
3rds
interval added to chords during Renaissance
tonality dissolved
idea of tonal center destroyed, composers adopted interval as structuring technique
Machaut
composer who wrote one of first polyphonic settings of Mass Ordinary
tempo
speed of a piece, fixed rate of the beat, classically written in Italian
harmony
...
homophony
...
texture of baroque
mostly homophonic, but bach and handel tend to be polyphonic
con forza e passione
with force and passion
variation
same idea, different explorations
Backbeat
placing emphasis on 2 and 4 instead of 1 and 3.
Ex: Chuck Berry "Rock and Roll Music"
liberetto
text of opera
hypermeter
when entire measures are heard in groups in same way that beats are grouped within measures, such as a downbeat occurring every 4 measures
diatonic scale
scale consisting of seven notes
conjunct
moving in a stepwise connected manner
suites
...
4ths/5ths
intervals in which 2 notes are separated from each other by a distance of either 4 or 5 diatonic notes. Characterizes the Middle Ages
prelude
An introductory piece, leading to another, such as a fugue or an opera (except for Chopin's didn't lead to anything else)
pianissimo
softest
chord progression
pattern of chords comprising entire harmonic content of song
syncopation
emphasis of non-strong beats, backbeats
Realism
What is verismo?
Louis XIV
mid-17th century king with court composers writing dance suites (Lully)
Handel
Late Baroque German composer (1685) worked mostly in England
Notre Dame Mass
Machaut's groundbreaking setting of Mass Ordinary in Reims
frequency
velocity of sound is always same regardless of pitch. when higher. the wavelength is smaller, distance between layers of compressed air, which means the more vibrations impact the eardrum in a given moment
rondo (form)
(theme) (episode) (rondo) (episode) etc.
range
difference between the highest and lowest pitch of a melody
major
triad with a raised middle note
romanticism
..., a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
bar
...
liturgy
...
upbeat
last beat of a cycle
Lully
mid-Baroque composer (c. 1650) favored at Versailles
syncopation
to go against the beat
Ars Subtilior
musical movement developed around Avignon and including Ciconia
octave
interval created by a gap of eight diatonic notes
Antonio Vivaldi
made baroque concerto popular. he was also a priest, working at St. Mark's in venice. worked at an orphanage: "hospice of mercy" as a violin teacher. popularized ritornello form
Miles Davis
1940s&50s; black jazz musician invented bebop, rejecting white expectations for black music; challenged traditions, spontaneous, FREE; inspired challenging of authority and encouraged people to stand up for civil rights
classical
unity
order
balance of form and content
looked to the monuments of ancient Greece and Rome
concern about good of all
tone poem
a piece of orchestral program music in one long movement
monophony
single melody line or voice without accompaniment
Opera
drama presented in music, with characters singing instead of speaking
Tropicalia
Emerged out of Brazil from 1967-1969 and was a popular culture muvement animated by the spirit of artistic cannibalism . It showed how Brazilian popular musicians could absorb the most diverse international cultural elements, especially rock, and combine them with elements of Brazilian culture, especialyl from Bahia the home state of many of the participants nad form them into something distinctively Brazilian. Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso were jailed in 1969 and the movement ended.
measure/bar
temporal or notated unit consisting of fixed number of beats equivalent to the meter, indicated by vertical lines
Sonata-Allegro form
exposition (repeated twice, with first and second themes and closing theme), development, recapitulation (all themes replayed) and possible coda. First movements of symphonies are usually in this format. Classical opera overtures typically also used this, but didn't repeat exposition.
4ths/5ths
chord intervals largely characterizing Middle Ages
concerto grosso
The main early Baroque type of concerto, for a group of solo instruments and a small orchestra. (120)
Bach
Baroque; Mastered every musical form except opera; Kantor, fugue, counterpoint, concerto grosso; Musical director; Highly intellectual technique with emotional power; Three movements; Expression of deep religious faith; Chorale prelude, cantatas; Wasn't famous till century after death; "St. Mathew Passion"; Brandenburg Concertos
Motet
prayer in Latin set to music for 4-6 voices
modulations
...
Tonality
the feeling of centrality around a tonic or home pitch
exposition
section in fugue where all voices enter in succession
oratoria
opera on a religious subject
Stravinsky
Was famous from the beginning of his career, used polyharmony (2 different harmonies simultaneously-both constant melodies that create dissonance)
adagio
slow tempo
rhythmic mode
poetic declamation that introduced meter to music
minuet
classical piece using ternary form, dance piece. in triple meter.
frequency
...
ritornello
repeated instrumental refrain in concerto
opera
theatrical play set to music, falling on the aria-arioso-recitative spectrum. First staged c. 1600 as Humanist attempts to reconstruct Greek drama
jongleurs
...
neume
earliest form of notation (c. 900) consisting of accent marks and squiggles placed above Latin text
Monody
to sing alone, communicates raw human emotions
dominant-tonic
most important relationship among chords in western tonal music. combo of tense chord which achieves resolution when it is succeeded by the tonic chord
hildegarde von bingen
first composer ever
melisma
A passage of many notes sung to a single syllable (52)
symphony
extended musical work with specific movements written for a full orchestra; sonata for orchestra
imitative polyphony
musical form introduced by Dufay, then regulated by Josquin
fugue (form)
subject entrance, episode, subject entrance, episode, etc.
dissonance
chord felt to be unstable or tense, clashing or clangorous intervals. Culturally contingent
Ciconia
most famous Ars Subtilior composer
resolution
which a tense harmony or chord resolves into an expected harmony/chord or repose
organum
earliest form of polyphony
solo concerto
single soloist and orchestra
sound
duration + rhythm
Decrescendo
getting softer
superimposition
musical themes on top of each other
tonality, tonal/harmonic language
subset of chords that produces semantic meaning, specific aesthetic and emotional effects when played in a certain order (syntax)
Copland
American composer of concert and film music, as well as an accomplished pianist. Instrumental in forging a distinctly American style of composition, he was widely known as "the dean of American composers." Copland's music achieved a difficult balance between modern music and American folk styles, and the open, slowly changing harmonies of many of his works are said to evoke the vast American landscape. He incorporated percussive orchestration, changing meter, polyrhythms, polychords and tone rows.
Italy
Verdi was from?
romantic music
extreme emotions, dark reflections of subconscious
harmonization of music
writing vertically organized to produce harmonies
basso continuo
...
Harmony
simultaneous sounding of 2 or more notes
Ars Nova
musical movement of 14th century, exemplified by Machaut
motet
...
octave
interval created by a gap of eight diatonic notes
Continuo (basso continuo)
A set of chords continuously underlying the melody in a piece of Baroque music. usually cello plus harpsichord or organ. (86,116)
Phonograph
Played records.
texture
...
disjunct
moving in a leapy disconnected manner
Ciconia
most famous Ars Subtilior composer
Berg
Austrian composer in Schoenberg's twelve-tone music system (1885-1935)
concertino
group of soloists in concerto grosso
form
no new forms
elongated existing forms (monumental)
shortened existing forms (miniature)
triad
name of a chord consisting of a lowest note, a middle note, and a highest note
tone color/timbre
...
cadence
sense of ending/closure
neumes
visual markings in early chant that indicated small groups of 2-4 notes
harmonic language/tonality
set of unconscious rules that govern sequences of chords and their effect (sense of completion)
fugue
strict form from baroque period, used imitation
perfect intervals
octave, fifth, fourth
plainchant
...
rhythm
temporal placement of musical events
liturgy
The system of prayers and worship of a particular religion (49)
Chopin
Everything from which composer contained piano?
concertato principle
developed by Giovanni Gabrieli in St. Mark's Basilica at beginning of Baroque (1600) by positioning groups of musicians in lofts.
fugue
Piece of music in which the same themes are repeated and combined in a counterpoint
polyphony
multiple voices and rhythms; independence of melodic lines
tonality, tonal/harmonic language
subset of chords that produces semantic meaning, specific aesthetic and emotional effects when played in a certain order (syntax)
half step
...
concertino
small group of soloists in a concerto gross
reciting tones
In gregorian recitation, pitch on which the text is sung
Cadence
Solid ending at the end of a phrase. In the case of mozart, question and answer, antecedent and consequent.
Style features of Early Baroque
Rhythms become more definite, regular, and insistent in Baroque music; a single rhythm or similar rhythms dominated a piece or a major segment of it;
emphasis on METER --> bar lines used for first time in music history
polyphony
when various melodic lines are moving independently of each other, melodically and rhythmically
strings
violin, viola, cello, bass
mode
...
cantata
moderate length religious piece with voices and instruments
chromatic scale
all of the available notes in Western, consisting of white and black keys
downbeat
first beat of a cycle
genre
...
dynamics
volume (loudness/softness of a sound)
character giving intervals
third, second, 6th, 7th (major/minor)
basso continuo
characteristic of baroque music, supporting chordal structure underneath. often consisted of harpsichord and cello.
triple meter
when each measure contains 3 or 9 beats
syncopation
emphasis of non-strong beats, backbeats
isorhythm
...
entrainment
synchronization of mind to a metrical beat, feeling the beat
fugue
special type of imitative polyphony, such as a "ricercar"
Pitch
the height or lowness of a tone or of a sound. Depends upon the rapidity of air vibrations (frequency)
Dvorak
New World Symphony
interval
space between two notes
second prattic
beginning of the Baroque (1600) associated with opera and Monteverdi
Lully
mid-Baroque composer (c. 1650) favored at Versailles
binary form
A B form
a capella
singing without instrumental accompaniment, including most Medieval and Renaissance sacred music
chromatic music
based on chords rather than modes
character piano piece (genre)
short, passionate for piano
tocatta
Free form rhapsodies for keyboard instruments
minuet/scherzo (form)
minuet, trio, minuet or |: a :| |: b :|, |: c :| |: d :|, a b
Ayre
Elizabethan works melancholy in nature
tonality
the principle of organization around a central pitch "the tonic" or home base
beat
regularly occurring accented moment of time. may be silent but still felt by listener
Proper of the Mass
varying sections of the Mass
sonata (form)
ABA' or |:exposition: 1st theme, bridge, 2nd theme, cadence theme :| (development: var. 1st theme, var. 2nd theme, transition, fragmentation and drama) (recapitulation: 1st, 2nd, everything ) (short Coda)
4ths/5ths
chord intervals largely characterizing Middle Ages
the Mass
daily rite whose climax is the Holy Communion/Eucharist, one of 7 sacraments of Church
triad
created by insertion of extra note between a 5th interval
sonata
a short instrumental piece in several movements
Stephen Foster
America's first great song writer.
Bernstein
classical composer, best known for musicals, used motivic consistency, introduced operatic elements to theatre
Ordinary of the Mass
five sections of Mass that are invariable
Basso ostinato
persistent or obstinate bass; any short musical gesture repeated over and over again
Madrigal
a setting for 4-6 voices of a poplar love poem
Madrigalism- excessive use of things identified with madrigals--especially word painting.
harmony
sounding of multiple pitches at the same time
major/minor dichotomy
positive or negative associations in music
Sonata (baroque)
instrumental work, usually 1-3 instruments. variation in tempo and in major or minor, usually focuses on violin. In baroque, they are dance usually.
diminuendo
to grow softer
viola
A bowed stringed instrument slightly larger than a violin, tuned a fifth lower.
modality
...
trope
elaborate genre of chant
major/minor dichotomy
positive or negative associations in music
Monteverdi
Baroque; First genius in Opera; Dramatic instinct; Transform emotion into musical terms; "L'Orfeo"
concerto (form)
ritonello-fast,
variation-slow,
ritonello-fast
dynamics/volume
intensity of sound
dynamics
...
repetition
exact repetition of musical section
crescendo
gradually getting louder
Rondo
ABACA
recurrence
repetition of themes
French overture
special kind of overture, consisting of grand intro followed by fast and fugal section
Gregorian chant/plainsong/plainchant
medieval chant without sense of recurring downbeats, first is without meter
polytonality
superimposition of tonal centers
Motives/motif
smallest recognizable unit of melody.
chord progression
standardized sequence of chords repeated in piece
classical harmony
more homophonic, less polyphonic character
romantic
self-expression
communicate w/passion
looked to the human imaginations and wonders of nature
instinctive and personal
pitch
(frequency) height of musical sound
imitative polyphony
when various voices imitate each other at time intervals
Bach
late Baroque German composer (1685-1750) famous organist who wrote complicated fugues and 3 years of weekly music for Lutheran services (cantatas)
Sequence
a repeated melodic shape played at successively higher or lower intervals. A sequence helps with modulation between keys.
Bach loves them.
tonal
...
counterpoint
two or more distinct melodic lines sung or played at the same time
Josquin
composer ushering in Golden Age of Polyphony
polyphony
when various melodic lines are moving independently of each other, melodically and rhythmically
contrapuntal
...
octave
interval that produces perception of sameness
dominant-tonic relationship
most important syntactic relationship in Western tonal music
major mode
...
Rubate
Stretched time (In which certain liberties are taken with the rhythm without upsetting the basic beat.)
Ordinary of the Mass
five sections of Mass that are invariable
aria
highly melodic music, whose melodies are repeated according to simple pattern. Expresses stable emotional state, with no plot advance.
Caetano Veloso
Caetano Veloso, is a composer, singer, guitarist, writer, and political activist. He has been called "one of the greatest songwriters of the century"[1] and "a pop musician/poet/filmmaker/political activist whose stature in the pantheon of international pop musicians is on a par with that of Bob Dylan, Bob Marley, and Lennon/McCartney".[2] Veloso is most known for his participation in the Brazilian musical movement Tropicalismo which encompassed theatre, poetry and music in the 1960s, at the beginning of the Brazilian military dictatorship.
organum
one or more voices singing above lower voice, which slowly sings notes of plainchant, homophonic
forms
...
syncopation
plaing emphasis on a weak beat or weak part of beat--usually unexpected and throws you off.
Ex: Stravinsky's "Rite of Spring" -much more difficult syncopation.
imitative polyphony
musical form introduced by Dufay, then regulated by Josquin
Ars Nova
musical movement of 14th century, exemplified by Machaut
3rds
interval added to chords during Renaissance
misterioso
mysteriously
mezzo-forte
medium loud
pitch
height or lowness of tone or sound. depends on the rapidity of air vibrations.
mosaic
multiple perspectives of same piece
scale
collection of pitches that repeats at octave
syllabic
one note per syllable
recitative
speech-like singing full of mood swings. Reflects constantly changing emotions of character with lots of plot action through monologues and conversations
Chromatic Scale
all 12 notes, black and white keys, all 1/2 steps in an octave (terrible for directing melody). Chromatic scale not used by itself in many pieces--usually utilized for color. Derive diatonic scales from chromatic scale.
climax
...
Great Schism
1054 split, with Pope in Rome (becoming center of Catholicism) and Constantinope
hypermeter
when entire measures are heard in groups in the same way that beats are grouped within measures. a series of downbeats may lead to a downbeat of greater importance
sonata allegro form
The basis of the first movement; allegro because most first movements are fast
Strophic Form
Same melody is repeated with every stanza.
organum
...
phrasing
using rhythms of text for music
beat
regularly recurring accented moment of time, usually sounded as an accented note
Leonin, Perotin
composers and innovators of the Notre Dame School of Polyphony famous for organum
GIOVANNI GABRIELI (c. 1555 -1612)
Motet, "O magnun mysterium";
written for the Xmas season; exploited particular acoustics of St. Mark's Basilica in Venice; two choirs -- mainly homophonic
chromatic scale
...
melismatic singing
singing multiple notes per syllable
church cantata
mutimovement sacred work with arias, arioso and recitatives. see Bach's "Awake, a voice is calling". accompanying orchestra. secret text.
French overture
type of piece popularized by Lully, usually fond at beginning of dance suites and operas
meter
grouping of measures over time
Motet
4 or 5 voice sacred music
Handel
Baroque; oratorios, operas, and orchestrals; "Hallelujah Chorus from Messiah"; "Xerxes: Largo"
duple meter
when each measure contants 2,4,6,8, or 16 beats
homophony
a single melody of interest combined with other sounds (normal song)
Josquin des Prez
Renaissance; greatest composer of the renaissance; composing and directing Sistine Choir; motet for 4 voices; balance and order, feel for quality of lyrics; "Tu pauperum Refugium"
dance suite
type of piece assimilated by German composers like Handel and Bach from France
mass (form)
kyrie,
gloria,
credo,
sanctus,
agnus dei
polyphony
multiple voices
melisma
many notes on one syllable
resolution
the transition of a tense harmony/chord (dissonance) into an expected harmony/chord of repose (consonance)
French Baroque Music
stately and graceful style of baroque music with overtures and dance suites
homophonic
...
tutti
entire orchestra in a concerto, or the passages where the entire orchestra plays
Orfeo
first great opera, about guy who has to rescue his wife from the underworld. 5 acts
down beats
strong beats
motet
...
2 new genre
art song
symphonic poem (tells story)
Pope Gregory I
plainchant named for this person. appointed during Byzantine Emperor
measure/bar
single group or cycle of beats with its own downbeat
Mahler
Composer who, through his works, extended the Viennese symphonic tradition into the twentieth century
tonic/key
tonal center of music
Dvorak
Who wrote The World Symphony while in America?
passion
Music set to the narrative of Christ after the reformation; for crucifixion of Christ; kind of oratorio
the Mass
daily rite whose climax is the Holy Communion/Eucharist, one of 7 sacraments of Church
Italian Baroque Music
dramatic and emotionally charged style of baroque music with concertos
Ritornello
theme repeated in whole or in part throughout a movement
fugue
...
basso continuo
a bass line that provided an underlying structure for the harmonies
brass
trumpet, french horn, trombone, tuba
tonic/key
primary harmony and consonance of a piece
Verdi
Greatest Opera composer.
Ars Subtilior
musical movement in the late 14th century meaning the "Subtle style." Developed the rhythmic independence introduced by Ars Nova.
pitch
height or lowness of tone or sound. depends on the rapidity of air vibrations.
frequency
measure of air vibrations that produces the sensation of pitch
Anthems
A musical composition written for choir (sometimes with solo voices added) in English
romantic themes
love and romance
exaltation and despair
tenor
bottom portion of music which "holds" the rest
piano trio
instrumental group; usually a violin, cello, and piano.
structural downbeat
significant musical arrival, usually a hypermetric downbeat accompanied by an important harmonic resolution
Ars Nova
style of music in the 1300s, meaning "The New Technique"
Functional harmony
...
functional harmony
a series of rules about consonance and dissonance that pushes the music forward through a series of tension and release
style
...
dominant-tonic relationship
most common relationship between chords that leads to resolution
beat
regularly recurring accented moment of time, usually sounded as an accented note
French overture
special kind of overture, consisting of grand intro followed by fast and fugal section
libretto
The complete book of words for an opera, oratoriao, cantata etc. (141)
canzonas
...
opera
"works"; a dramatic performance where the text is sung rather than spoken; power to poetry; simplify vocal music; court of Louis XIV
Ars Nova
musical movement developing free polyphony
tonality
tonal
scale
pitches in order
chromatic scale
all of the available notes in Western, consisting of white and black keys
homophony
either a melody line above chords, or when all voices move together at same time
first great opera:
Claudio Monteverdi's "Orfeo"
fugue
special type of imitative polyphony, such as a "ricercar"
Charlemagne
restricted repertoire of liturgical melodies based upon style of chanting popular in Rome
cadence
conclusion of a musical span, usually with a dominant-tonic resolution
sequence
...
aria
more passionate, more expressive. Usually highlights a particular performer, very emotional
diatonic scale
consists of seven notes. eight note usually sung or played, is a higher octave version of the first note
Second Viennese School
..., Name given to composer Arnold Schoenberg and his pupils Alban Berg and Anton Webern; represents the first efforts in twelve-tone composition
classical music
after 1750, period of enlightenment
counterpoint
technique and craft of writing p olyphoney
azan
...
compound meter
...
opera seria
A term for the serious heroic opera of the baroque period in Italy. (141)
movement
A self-contained section within a larger piece, such as a symphony or concerto grosso (121)
imitative polyphony
...
entrainment
synchronization of mind to a metrical beat, feeling the beat
Mimesis
representation of reality in art--imitation
1. poetry and music are twins...general mood, contrast
2. poetry is older twin
3. music is the hand maid of poetry
recitative
speech-like singing full of mood swings. Reflects constantly changing emotions of character with lots of plot action through monologues and conversations
Concerti Grosso
tutti + concertino (small group of soloist)
ritonello (form)
(ritonello/full orchestra/full theme) (solo episode 1) (rit) (solo episode 2) (rit) (solo episode X) (rit/full orchestra/full theme)
semichoirs
composers of the 16th century often divided their choirs into low and high groupf of e-4 voice parts each; the semichoirs would alternate and answer or echo each other; Venetian composers later developed alternating between 2 or 3(+) choirs
delayed gratification
deference of resolution which generates suspense and attentiveness, adding aesthetic importance to long-awaited moment
triple meter
when each measure contains 3 or 9 beats
aria
pure music, expresses emotions
chords
...
chord progression
standardized sequence of chords repeated in piece
tempo
...
Dynamics
Loud or soft; volume
compound meter
combinations of duple and triple meter
galliard
...
Concert Overture, Incidental Music, Program Symphony, and Symphonic Poem.
Four Types of Program Music.
imitative polyphony
musical form of Baroque fugue
wanted to appeal to general public
...
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
Ordinary of Mass
Range/Taciturn
wide/narrow
Ex: narrow: Gregorian Chant
Ex: wide: Opera
cadence
conclusion of musical span. characterized by strong dominant-tonic resolution
chromatic scale
scale system where octave occurs at the 13th note.
Romantic
Period of Golden Age of the piano.
counterpoint
...
Notre Dame School of Polyphony
where composers like Leonin and Perotin experimented with organum (1150-1250), increasing number of voices from 3 to 4. Developed repeating rhythmic patterns in triple meter, constituting the first metrical music.
Steve Reich
Stephen Michael "Steve" Reich (pronounced /ˈraɪʃ/;[1] born October 3, 1936) is an American composer who pioneered the style of minimalist music. His innovations include using tape loops to create phasing patterns (examples are his early compositions, "It's Gonna Rain" and "Come Out"), and the use of simple, audible processes to explore musical concepts (for instance, "Pendulum Music" and "Four Organs").
ritornello
repeated instrumental refrain in concerto
rhythm
any sequence of events in time; sounds and silences
arioso
in between aria and recitative. less rapid-fire delivery than recitative.
the Virtuoso
from an era that glorified the individual
organum
earliest form of polyphony
Mozart
Rococo (18th c.); all musical forms; composing by 6; ability to create characters; universality of human nature; "Piano Concerto No. 27 in B Flat k. 595"; "The Marriage of Fiagro"
triple meter
one strong beat followed by two weak beats
minor
triad with a lowered middle note
Debussy
French composer who is said to have created impressionism in music (1862-1918)
woodwinds
flute, clarinet, oboe, basson
sonata (classical)
three movement form with any combination of forms.
motet (genre)
upper voices given text unique from bottom voices
concerto grosso
Italian Baroque concerto for group of soloists, with first and last fast movements in ritornello form
Brandenburg Concertos
Bach; combined instruments in unusual groups; different set of solo instruments; tranquil, limitless energy
minor
triad with a lowered middle note
meter
way in which pulses are arranged in each measure, usually in 3s or 4s (not 5s or 7s in Western music)
cadence
the ending or stopping point of a musical phrase
passacaglia
...
rhythmic modes
short patterns of rhythm borrowed from poetic metrical fee, in triple meter
diminuendo
grow softer
emic
subjective, insider approach to culture
andante
medium tempo
Tempo
How fast or How slow (rate) the speed of the pulse
hypostasis
the process of treating something abstract or intangible as concrete reality
prolation canon
the same melody shared by various voices where each voice sings the melody at different rates
Pope Gregory I
plainchant named for this person. appointed during Byzantine Emperor
trouveres
...
opera buffa
the name for Italian comic opera but which, unlike most other forms of comic opera, uses rapid-fire recitative rather than spoken dialogue (194)
harmony
similar to chord. implies functionality of chords, which refers to the special syntactical relationships that cords have with one another
fugue
presents exposition, followed by episodes with counterpoint, ends with strong tonic. in same key as prelude, but is a separate piece.
harmonized
...
Proper of the Mass
varying sections of the Mass
"Messiah"
Handle; Oratorio; "Hallelujah Chorus"
hymn
...
triple meter
when each measure contains 3 or 9 beats
Burkhardt
inventor of the "Renaissance," beginning musical Renaissance at 1450 and ending it with Palestrina
monophony
single melody line or voice without accompaniment
cantus firmus
multiple voices using same text to create polyphony
polyphony
two or more melodies played or sung simultaneously where the melodies are felt to be independent of each other and of equal interest
Gershwin
American composer. He wrote most of his vocal and theatrical works in collaboration with his elder brother, lyricist Ira Gershwin. George Gershwin composed songs both for Broadway and for the classical concert hall. He also wrote popular songs with success. "Summertime"
consonance
harmonious interval or chord
Lied
German-texted solo vocal song, generally with piano accompaniment.
mass
Consists of five large sections: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei. (68)
Interval
distance between two notes in terms of frequency
John Dunstaple
english composer responsible for injecting the 3rd into the mainstream of musical practice throughout Europe
Vivaldi
late Baroque composer famous for many dramatic concertos and use of Ritornello form. Inspired Bach.
mezzo-piano
medium soft
decrescendo
gradually getting softer
meter
regular repetition of beats, duple or triple
basso continuo
Some early Baroque music is homophonic and some is polyphonic, but both textures are enriched by a feature unique to the period, the basso continuo.
Bass line performed by bass voices or low instruments such as cellos/bassoons, but a chord instrument was needed to add chords continuously to accompany the bass;
**BAROQUE POLYPHONY HAS SYSTEMATIC HARMONIC UNDERPINNINGS**
isorhythmic motet
same rhythm, different notes
Beats and Pulses
underlies most music. Can have weak or strong sense of pulse.
Ex: weak: Gregorian Chant
Ex: strong: Rock & Pop

Beats are normally divided into groups of 3 or 2 (or more).
Ex: Vivaldi's "Spring" groups of 2
Ex: Austin Pitre's "Opelous Waltz" groups of 3
Ex: David Brubeck's "Take 5" groups of 5
pentatonic scale
scale system where octave occurs on sixth note of scale
toccatas
...
Shape-note
Notes that were shapes- easier to read
Qur'anic recitation
...
Palestrina
composer at end of Renaissance and Golden Age of Polyphony (1600) renowned for purity and smoothness
fragmentation
breaking up melodies, tones
etic
objective, outsider approach to culture
chord
two or more notes sounded simultaneously
ars antiqua
style of middle medieval ages
chord
two or more notes sounded simultaneously
1825-1900
Time period for Romanticism.
Josquin
Renaissance composer (1450-1521) who established musical technique "points of imitation"
register
from highest pitch to lowest
Serialism
The technique of composing with a series, a fixed arrangement of pitches or rhythms held throughout a serial composition. Generally a twelve-tone series.
expressionist music
interested in insides, emotions
non-imitative polyphony
...
paraphrase
...
interval
distance or gap between two pitches
duple meter
when each measure contains 2, 4, 8, or 16 beats
entrainment
synchronization of the mind to a metrical beat. some still unknown module of the brain is devoted to maintaining the feeling of the beat. way of sensing the passage of time
timbre
tone color of sound, mix of instruments
contrary motion
one voice goes up, another goes inversely down
Handel
composer who wrote "Water Music" dance suite in French style to pacify angry employer
drone
pedal tone held for base of music
Aria
Song for a solo voice in an opera, an oratorio, or a cantata
Melodies
based on tonic (usually in title of song) (also typically begins and ends with that note. 2) Over-arching line that our ears are drawn to.
Ex: Mozart's "Symphony No 40 in G minor"
Pitch: low --> high interval
chord progression
standardized sequence of chords thats gets repeated within a piece
pulsation
repetition of pulse
3rds
added to chords during Renaissance. Insertion of an extra note in between outer note of a 5th
tonality, tonal/harmonic language
entire system of standardized interrelationships between harmonies
Josquin
Renaissance composer (1450-1521) who established musical technique "points of imitation"
Spiritual
..., a kind of religious song originated by Blacks in the southern United States
Melody
series of pitches, plus rhythm--that forms a recognizable unit
Ex: chant doesn't really have rhythm
Ex: Mozart--changes, but sticks with same time.
ternary form
ABA (think twinkle twinkle litter star(
Handel
composer who wrote "Water Music" dance suite in French style to pacify angry employer
oratorio
Long semi-dramatic piece on a religious subject for soloists, chorus, and orchestra. (144)
12 tone system
system used by schoenberg to produce music
consonance
harmonious interval or chord
hypermeter
when entire measures are heard in groups in same way that beats are grouped within measures, such as a downbeat occurring every 4 measures
Monteverdi
baroque composer, was maestro de cappella at St. Marks in Venice
Major/minor system
use of chords became standardized, and the sense of TONALITY--the feeling of centrality around a tonic or home pitch0--grew much stronger
maestoso
majestically
medieval modes
...
monophony
a single unaccompanied melody (singing row your boat)
Octave
interval created by a gap of 8 diatonic notes
Charlemagne
restricted repertoire of liturgical melodies based upon style of chanting popular in Rome
consonance
antipode of a dissonance. harmonious interval or chord. dissonances resolve to consonances
subject
primary theme of a fugue
duple meter
consists of one strong beat followed by one weak beat over and over in a pattern
whole step
...
cadenza
An improvised passage for the soloist in a concerto, or sometimes in other works. Concerto _________s usually come near the ends of movements. (128)
Gabrieli
Venetian Renaissance; most renowned venetian composer of the 16th c.; multiple choirs; instrumental music; pioneered the use of the organ in church; St. Mark's Cathedral
ritornello form
melodic refrain around which baroque concertos are structured. played by tutti
allegro
a fast tempo
compound meter
combinations of duple and triple meter
Charlemagne
introduced Christian liturgical practices to Europe
cadence
conclusion of a musical span, usually with a dominant-tonic resolution
Sprechstimme
a style of dramatic vocalization between singing and speaking. Developed by Schoenberg
Machaut
first composer to fully utilize notation; Ars Nova, c. 1300s
Symphonic Poem
Program music for orchestra, in one movement, with contrasting sections to develop a poetic idea.
Machaut
French medieval composer and poet (1300-1377)
Bach
late Baroque German composer (1685-1750) famous organist who wrote complicated fugues and 3 years of weekly music for Lutheran services (cantatas)
counterpoint
technique and craft of writing p olyphoney
points of imitation
most pervasive Renaissance technique and texture, where the repeated theme continuously changes (unlike Baroque fugue)
pentatonic scale
scale system where octave occurs on sixth note of scale
virginal
an early keyboard instrument in the form o an oblong box small enough to be placed on a table or held in a lap
organum
simplest polyphonic music
dance suite
set of French courtly dances
structural downbeat
significant musical arrival, usually hypermetric downbeat accompanied by an important harmonic resolution
Monody
1 melody + accompaniment
interval
...
syllabic singing
singing one note per syllable
rhythm
temporal placement of musical events
Tonic
note around which the scale is based.
interval
distance between 2 notes
John Dunstaple
English composer who brought 3rds to the continent in the 1420s, while England was occupying area in Burgundy and attempting to seize French throne. employer executed Joan of Arc.
Italy, Germany, and France
Where did Romantic Opera go?
Divine Office/Canonical Hours
holy times of day corresponding to set of prayers to be recited or chanted
polyphonic
...
Measure
a group o 2 or 3 beats. Weak and strong beats in a measure.
Ex: Vivaldi's "Spring" Strong on 1 & 3, weak on 2 & 4
cadence theme
In sonata form, the final conclusive theme in the exposition. (168)
frequency
measure of air vibrations that produces the sensation of pitch
Wagner
German composer of operas and inventor of the music drama in which drama and spectacle and music are fused (1813-1883)
Crescendo
getting louder
form of Brandenburg concertos
concerto GROSSO with concertino, but separation is kind of hard to hear
dynamics
loudness
chord
two or more notes sounded simultaneously
aria
highly melodic music, whose melodies are repeated according to simple pattern. Expresses stable emotional state, with no plot advance.
Note/Tone
pitch that we think is musical. In the 'west' we desire clarity of tone. This usually means a frequency with fewer obvious overtones mixed in.
tempo
the speed at which the beat progresses
somatic
bodily experience
organum
The earliest genre of medieval polyphonic music. (56)
measure
...
solo concerto
single soloist and orchestra
dance suite
set of French courtly dances
pavan
...
crescendo
to grow louder
the well-tempered clavier
a prelude and fugue in every key
Mass Proper
Catholic prayers reserved for specific days
opera (genre)
new during Baroque, direct expression of emotions
dissonance
combination of pitches that sounds discordance and in need of resolution
modal music
music made up of modes
dolente
sadly
Charlemagne
introduced Christian liturgical practices to Europe
Timpani
a large hemispherical brass or copper percussion instrument with a drumhead that can be tuned by adjusting the tension on it
recitative
...
diatonic scale
scale consisting of seven notes
Through-Composed
Beginning to end- without repetitions of whole sections.
minor mode
...
Choral
piece of instrumental music consisting of a set of variations on a familiar hymn or sacred song
aria
...
phrase
smallest unit of the musical structure comparable to a sentence in words
monophonic
one voice or melody line
forte
loud
rhythm
the distinction between long and short notes, important in perceiving music
Ives
an American composer of modernist classical music. He is widely regarded as one of the first American classical composers of international significance. Ives' music was largely ignored during his life, and many of his works went unperformed for many years. Over time, Ives would come to be regarded as an "American Original". experimental music , with musical techniques including polytonality, polyrhythm, tone clusters, aleatoric elements, and quarter tones
octave
interval at the basis of Western European diatonic 7-note scale.
spiezzatura
purposeful music imperfections (swing)
Concert
Opera moved from church to what?
Verdi
italian operatic composer whose music includes Othello, Aida, and other works that reflected his nationalistic beliefs.
Burkhardt
inventor of the "Renaissance," beginning musical Renaissance at 1450 and ending it with Palestrina
downbeat
first beat of a cycle
mele pule
...
shifting volume quickly
terraced dynamics
motive
A short fragment of melody or rhythm used in constructing a long section of music. (29)
duple meter
when each measure contains 2, 4, 8, or 16 beats
tempo
more diverse and elastic (Rubato (robbed): steal time (meter); hard to count))
Carolingian Empire
founded by Charlemagne c. 800, later known as HRE
imitative polyphony
musical form of Baroque fugue
impressionist music
interested in way we perceive
concerto
soloist and orchestra
paraphrase
add notes between traditional ones to smooth the music
second prattic
beginning of the Baroque (1600) associated with opera and Monteverdi
tempo indications:
adagio
andante
moderato
allegretto
allegro
presto
largo, lento, grave
larghetto
andantino
vivace, vivo
molto allegro
prestissimo
tempo indications:
adagio-slow
andante-on the slow side, but not too slow
moderato- moderate
allegretto - on the fast side, but not too fast
allegro- fast
presto - very fast
largo, lento, grave - slow, very slow, somewhat faster than largo
larghetto- somewhat faster than largo
andantino - somewhat faster than andante
vivace, vivo- lively
molto allegro- faster than allegro
prestissimo- very fast
phrases
...
Madrigal
secular tune for common man
for enjoyment
not for elites
Cantata
short oratorios, alternating arias and recitative
mass
...
opera
Drama presented in music with characters singing instead of speaking.(87,139)
monophonic
...
delayed gratification
generates suspense and attentiveness in listeners and adds aesthetic importance to the long-awaited moments of resolution
chansons
...
motive/theme
...
Recitative
The free declaration of a vocal line, halfway between signing and ordinary speech, with only a simple instrumental accompaniment for support; the inventors of opera, who thought they were reviving ancient Greek tragedy used the term monody
melody
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Stan Getz
jazz saxophone player. Known as "The Sound" because of his warm, lyrical tone, Getz's prime influence was the wispy, mellow tone of his idol, Lester Young.
antiphon
plainchant w few melismas.
Notre Dame Mass
Machaut's groundbreaking setting of Mass Ordinary in Reims
crescendo
to grow louder
syncopation
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recitative
in Baroque opera, only accompanied by basso continuo. not aria.
Octave
doubling or halving or a frequency.
A = 220 Hz
A = 440 Hz
A = 880 Hz
Madrigals
polyphonic song for 3 or more voices, verses set to same music, refrain set to different music, secular
tonic
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tonality or tonal language
system of standardized interrelationships between harmonies. subset of chords will have specific aesthetic and emotional effects when played in order
cantata
vocal singing, in a church, with instruments. soloist, chorus, an accompanying orchestra. multiple movements.
ritornello
the orchestral material at the beginning of a concerto grosso, etc. which always returns later in the piece. (121)
Vivaldi
Baroque; concerto grosso; 3 movements; 4 violin concertos; "Four Seasons"
total work of art
concept that all aspects of a production must be part of the art
harmony
bold harmonic shifts (very ubrupt)
chromatic harmony
prolonged dissonance
chord
more than one pitch simultaneously
opera buffa
humorous opera
Saariaho
Kaija Saariaho studied composition in Helsinki, Freiburg and Paris, where she has lived since 1982. Her studies and research at IRCAM have had a major influence on her music and her characteristically luxuriant and mysterious textures are often created by combining live music and electronics.
coda
The concluding section of a piece or movement, after the main elements of the form have been presented. ____s are common in sonata form. (169)
diatonic scale
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Pitch
Frequency; measure in Hz
subject
primary theme of a fugue