Music hum madness rev

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intensity of sound


..., a flexible tempo using slight variations of speed to enhance musical expression

presto furioso

fast and furious

syllabic singing

singing one note per syllable

functional harmony

each chord assumed a special role (or function) in relation to the tonic chord (the chord on the home pitch); when one chord follows another in Baroque music, it does so in a newly predictable and purposeful way;
a method of organizing large-scale pieces of music


György Sándor Ligeti (May 28, 1923 - June 12, 2006) was a composer, born in a Hungarian Jewish family in Transylvania, Romania. He briefly lived in Hungary before later becoming an Austrian citizen. Many of his works are well known in classical music circles, but to the general public, he is best-known for the various pieces featured in the Stanley Kubrick films 2001: A Space Odyssey, The Shining, and Eyes Wide Shut


speed of a piece, fixed rate of the beat, classically written in Italian

atonal music

music built on structures other than tonality

parallel organum

2 voices moving in parallel

song cycle (genre)

songs unified on subject

plainchant/gregorian chants (genre)

unaccompanied church music sung in relation to liturgical words



Program Music

Instumental music that has literary or pictorial associations.


emphasis of non-strong beats

points of imitation

most pervasive Renaissance technique and texture, where the repeated theme continuously changes (unlike Baroque fugue)

chamber music

music written for small groups or ensembles, designed to be played inside rooms on secular occasions


Russian- Neo-Classic style, atonal music-"Peter and the Wolf"


distance or gap between two pitches


distance or gap between two pitches

basso obstinato

repeated bass line


only Mass Ordinary prayer in Greek




intensity of sound. another name for volume




series of organized pitches


more than one note/melody at the same time
Ex: Josquin's "Ava Maria" (pre Council of Trent)

John Dunstaple

English composer who brought 3rds to the continent in the 1420s, while England was occupying area in Burgundy and attempting to seize French throne. employer executed Joan of Arc.


the transition of a tense harmony/chord (dissonance) into an expected harmony/chord of repose (consonance)


A vocal number for solo singer and orchestra, generally in an opera, cantata, or oratorio (88,141)

new and better instruments

silver flute
english horn
keyed trumpet

da capo aria

An aria that is sung in ABA form, one in which the A section is sung at the end. (141)

Carolingian Empire

founded by Charlemagne c. 800, later known as HRE



concerto grosso

Italian Baroque concerto for group of soloists, with first and last fast movements in ritornello form


important Russian composer whose works are noted for their expressive melodies (1840-1893)


all melodic lines share the same rhythm (have silences and can pick out individual lines)


A four-part harmonization of a Lutheran hymn, such as Bach composed in his Cantata No. 4 and other works. (150)

imitative polyphony

delayed of same melody


way of sensing the passage of time in segments that are hierarchically stacked

symphony (classical)

4 movements: fast, slow, minuet (or scherzo) fast


in 14th century music technique of repeating the identical rhythm for each section of a composition while the pitches are altered (60)

da capo

a direction to a performer to repeat from the beginning of a piece of music up to a later point. (141)

lied (genre)

short song with sophisticated poem


section in fugue where all voices enter in succession


Rococo (18th c.); first high social position with just his genius; all musical forms; more than 100 symphonies; seriousness without gloom; "Father of Symphony"; "London Symphony" (Last 10)


speed of piece, fixed rate of the beat


1- organization of time in music; 2- a pattern of beats and pulses; 3- refers to values or length of a note or series of notes.


way of sensing the passage of time in segments that are hierarchically stacked

simple meter


ternary form

A B A form

word painting

sounds match meaning of words

chromatic scale

all of the available notes in Western music. there are 12 and they consist of white and black keys on piano


more than two notes per syllable
Ex:Anonymous "Viderunt Omnes"


the simultaneous sound of two or more melodies

delayed gratification

deference of resolution which generates suspense and attentiveness, adding aesthetic importance to long-awaited moment

point of imitation


Louis XIV

mid-17th century king with court composers writing dance suites (Lully)


single group or cycle of beats with its own downbeat

Conjunct Motion

means our melody move in steps or small intervals


associated with positive and negative human emotions. central to emotional language of West


Hungarian composer and pianist who collected Hungarian folk music


an instrumental piece made to show off the virtuosity of the player. can replace an overture.

Diatonic Scale

one tonic at bottom, one at top of scale--7 notes in the diatonic scale. The 8th being tonic repeat.

tonality, tonal/harmonic language

entire system of standardized interrelationships between harmonies


A composition written systematically in imitative polyphony, usually with a single main theme, the ______ subject. (95,131)

Whole Tone Scale

A scale, sometimes by Debussy, comprising only 6 notes to the octave, each a whole tone apart


either a melody line above chords, or when all voices move together at same time

functional harmony

idea that all chords have relation to home tonic

ground bass


melismatic singing

singing multiple notes per syllable


repeated music for each stanza

string quartet

an instrumental group consisting of two violins, viola, and cello


late Baroque composer famous for many dramatic concertos and use of Ritornello form. Inspired Bach.


way in which pulses are arranged in each measure, usually in 3s or 4s (not 5s or 7s in Western music)


An instrument in the violin family, known for its rich tone. Among the strings, it has the second-lowest range, higher only than the bass viol, and it has the lowest part in string quartets. Players hold the instrument between their knees to play it.



French Baroque Music

stately and graceful style of baroque music with overtures and dance suites


functionality of chords, specific syntactical relationships between chords




primary harmony and consonance of a piece

opera seria

serious opera


Who was known for verismo?


timpani, cymbals, snare drum, xylophone, etc.

Ars Nova

musical movement developing free polyphony

Leonin, Perotin

composers and innovators of the Notre Dame School of Polyphony famous for organum

ars nova

Contemporary term for new 14th century polyphonic music that came after organum. (60)


functionality of chords, specific syntactical relationships between chords

mass (genre)

large scale religious piece


Romantic Opera never went where?

opera (form)

(intro=overture) (act I: [recitative] [aria] [rec] [aria] [chorus], etc.) (act II: same as I) (act III: same as I)


composer ushering in Golden Age of Polyphony


Russian musical nationalist



concertato principle

Antiphonal music eventually developing into concerto/concerto grosso

German/flemish songs

romantic, dramatic, military or political in character


describes how pulses are arranged in each measure



Gregorian chant/plainsong/plainchant

medieval chant without sense of recurring downbeats, first is without meter


Sacred drama or extended musical composition for solo singers, chorus, and orchestra that is performed without any action, scenery, or costume, in a church or concert hall, Handle, more religious


first beat of a cycle




light piece for strings alone.

French overture

type of piece popularized by Lully, usually fond at beginning of dance suites and operas


musical texture consisting of multiple voices all sounding together at the same time


music + speech, expresses narrative

ritornello form

theme comes back again, often played by full orchestra. theme inserted between soloist and tutti in virtuosic fashion.

imitative polyphony

when various voices imitate each other at time intervals


wide range
more chromatic

Divine Office/Canonical Hours

holy times of day corresponding to set of prayers to be recited or chanted


half-singing half-reciting style of presenting words in an opera, cantata, oratorio etc. (88,141)


Religious song with emphasis on word

word painting


triple meter

meter of waltz


composer at end of Renaissance and Golden Age of Polyphony (1600) renowned for purity and smoothness


weak or weak parts of beats


primary harmony and consonance of the piece.


imitation, what will become fugue


keyboard instrument; forerunner for the modern piano

repeated theme (not R)



generic term referring to temporal placement of musical events


A composition in several movements for solo voice, instruments, and perhaps also chorus. Depending on the text, ___________s are catigorized as secular or church ___________s. (149)

Ars Subtilior

musical movement developed around Avignon and including Ciconia

triple meter

meter of waltz


the accenting of certain beats of the meter that are ordinarily unaccented


one motive that oscillates throughout register


Late Baroque German composer (1685) worked mostly in England


regular repetition of sound

mensural notation

notation style invented c. 1250 that can record any rhythm


interval that produces perception of sameness

Program Symphony

Multimovement orchestral work. (Tells a story)


many notes per syllable

Notre Dame School of Polyphony

where composers like Leonin and Perotin experimented with organum (1150-1250), increasing number of voices from 3 to 4. Developed repeating rhythmic patterns in triple meter, constituting the first metrical music.

Italian Baroque Music

dramatic and emotionally charged style of baroque music with concertos


Early _______s were based on fragments of Gregorian chant but was quite secular. ______ means wordy in french. / By 16th century the term described a usually sacred vocal composition; they complemented mass, unlike mass the words varied significantly. (59,76)

dance suite

type of piece assimilated by German composers like Handel and Bach from France






musician harmonizing with chant



dominant-tonic relationship

most common relationship between chords that leads to resolution



variation (form)

|:theme: ab:| |:var. 1: a'b':| |:var. 2: a''b'':| (coda) etc.

compound meter

combinations of duple and triple meter

Solo singing

This became a favorite genre.


single voice

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