Comm 10 Readings
Terms in this set (56)
Which medium was the first to become a true mass medium? What does that mean?
Newspapers, first medium to become available to large numbers of people on a regular basis
What was the primary content of the earliest newspapers?
spreading commercial and business information, with some gossip and local stories
What does "truth as a defense" mean?
you can print anything as long as it is true
What is yellow journalism?
sensationalized coverage of crime, scandal, gossip, divorce, sex, disasters, and the like. These were accompanied by scare headlines, sensational pictures and photos, stunts, and faked stories
What was the significance of the penny press?
led newspapers to become first true mass medium
Cite three ways in which the role of the newspaper changed in the 20th century.
one edition in the morning, stories had more depth and detail, investigative journalism.
Define and give an example of a muckraker.
person who searches for and exposes misconduct in public life. Example comparing the great wealth and privilege of the few with the poverty and despair of starving masses
What is one concern of chain ownership?
companies would not be loyal to the local community, nor would they know what was really important to local residents
What is the inverted pyramid style?
most important elements are placed in the first paragraph, the next most important in the second paragraph, etc. so readers do not loose the flow and coherence of the story if later paragraphs are removed. The original piece can be shortened to fit different space restrictions of different newspapers without losing the most important elements.
what are the three major challenges of the newspaper?
significant decline in readership, especially among the young. , there has been a significant decline in advertising revenue. And third, the place of newspapers in the emerging world of the Internet is uncertain
Which medium was the first to reach a national audience on a regular basis?
What media shifts in the 1950s and 1960s led magazines to become more specialized?
Why do advertisers like magazines?
there are magazines on almost every conceivable topic with highly targeted audiences, specialization. Magazine readers tend to be better educated and more affluent, and thus more apt to buy advertised products, than your average television viewer. More women (who tend to do most of the buying for families) than men read magazines
What is selective editing?
advertisers directly address their target group by placing their ads in some copies of an edition of a magazine, and not others
What is a zine?
self-published magazines, often specialization run amuck
What advantages do magazines have over newspapers in dealing with the new world of the Internet?
Leaner organizations than newspapers. Higher quality paper and higher quality graphics that can be delivered online. Magazines can even function as social markers
What development turned the recording and radio industries from competitors/enemies to allies/bedfellows?
Define and give an example of a mondegreen
misunderstood lyrics ex:Take your passion and make it happen or take your pants down and make it happen
What trade-off has resulted in the inferior sound quality of music today?
portability and convenience
What is a 360 deal?
they get a cut of all revenue producing activities in which the artists are involved, e.g., concerts, merchandise sales, and product endorsements
What does it mean when we say that the recording industry is moving from an acquisition model to an access model?
moving from having CDs on computer to streaming music online
Why are albums that appeal to young kids and old geezers topping the charts?
They are the major groups that do not use file-sharing services.
What is a long-tail marketing strategy?
the retailing strategy of selling a large number of unique items in relatively small quantities
Which medium has he highest turnover of talent and content?
Why was the virtual elimination of the single when CDs were introduced such a big mistake?
Why is the fact that the major labels are each part of a much larger conglomerate been a saving grace over the last decade?
Even though they don't make much money in music sales, they make up for it with electronic sales
What is the most familiar and far-reaching mass communication medium in the world?
What is the most widely available medium of mass communication?
What was the original use/function of radio?
How was money originally made in the radio industry
sales of radio sets
When the original source of revenue in the radio industry proved insufficient, what two developments addressed the problem?
stations became linked by networks, and advertising
How does radio use the electromagnetic spectrum?
a transmitter sends messages over part of the electromagnetic spectrum to receivers or antennae that translate the message to a radio. The electromagnetic waves (here audio) are decoded by the receiving device
Why was it seen as appropriate for the government to regulate the EM spectrum?
thought airwaves were a natural resource belonging to the public
What was the "radio mess" of the late 1920s? How was it solved
more radio stations than frequencies, Federal Radio Act replaced many low powered stations with few high power stations
What is the Federal Communications Commission?
regulates radio, tv, film. For radio, a license is required to have as tation
Distinguish the two originals schools of thought in regard to radio broadcasting "in the public's interest"
elitists want what is good for the public such as classical musical, populists believe radio should play what the public wants even if it is not good ex: mindless chatter
What is one thing we learn about radio from The War of the Worlds presentation?
media affects people
Why is FM radio better than AM for music?
has superior sound (higher and lower frequencies)
What is narrowcasting?
linking of specific audiences with programs that speak their language ex: Spanish songs aimed at latinos
What is format broadcasting?
A station selects an audience segment and attempts to reach that group throughout its entire schedule ex: POW 106 aimed at blacks
What were three major effects of the Telecommunications Act of 1996?
more advertising, less diversity, and narrowing and making more uniform programming formats
What two major restrictions can be overcome by Internet radio?
time and space
Cite three ways that over-the-air broadcast, terrestrial radio is dealing with the competition from satellite radio and Internet radio
emphasis with local news, sports, traffic, weather, and talk, less commercials, more variety/mixing of genres
What is a podcast?
audio programs that can be downloaded or streamed from websites onto personal computers, laptops, or digital listening devices such as iPods or MP3 players
How are services like pandora.com, jango.com, last.fm, and slacker.com changing the very nature of radio?
do not give people the experience of listening to the same thing at the same time, personalized
Distinguish digital from analog media.
Digital: media are created in or transformed into computer-readable form. Analog: audio recording in which the modulation of the sound carrier wave is analogous to the fluctuations of the sound itself
What is a downside of digital media being automated?
People choose to receive only the news and information that reinforces their beliefs and values, democracy damaged
Give an example of how digital media are influencing privacy.
getting unwanted messages from friends who see you online, what sites you go to tracked by cookies
What do we mean when we say that digital media are typically ethereal?
immaterial quality; it exists, in a sense, without a physical presence, binary
Give an example of how digital media has shrunk space.
a library of books can be saved in a small computer
Give an example of how digital media has sped up time
can receive message from cell phones instantly, before message sent with telegraph
What is the open source movement?
programmers created software whose source code could be improved by anyone
What is a downside of digital distribution occurring instantaneously?
no way to completely control it
What is the basic distinction between the peer-to-peer and client server model?
peer-to-peer people: share info with each other, client server: central computer sever tells which files can be downloaded
Give an example of how digital media undermines traditional business models
Now any content creator can reach millions worldwide by simply putting content on the Internet. And there are no unit production costs associated with making more copies of media content.
Give five examples of social media.
emails, blogs, texts, social networking sites, chat rooms
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