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39 terms

APES 17-18

STUDY
PLAY
aquifer
a body of rock or sediment that stores groundwater and allows the flow of groundwater
artesian
Describes a confined aquifer containing groundwater that will flow upwards out of a well without the need for pumping.
condensation
the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water
condensation nuclei
tiny bits of particulate matter that serve as surfaces on which water vapor condenses
degraded
water that is polluted or heated so that it is unsuitable for other uses
desalination
involves removing dissolved salts from ocean water or from brackish (slightly salty) water in aquifers or lakes for domestic use.
dew point
the temperature at which the water vapor in the air becomes saturated and condensation begins
evaporation
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
groundwater
Water found in the spaces between soil particles and cracks in rocks underground (located in the saturation zone). A natural resource that is used for drinking, recreation, industry, and growing crops.
infiltration
the movement of surface water into rock or soil through cracks and pore spaces
rain shadow
the low-rainfall region that exists on the leeward (downwind) side of a mountain range. Is the result of the mountain range's causing precipitation on the windward side.
recharge zone
An area of the Earth's surface from which water percolates down into an aquifer
relative humidity
the percentage of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount the air could hold
residence time
the length of time a component, such as an individual water molecule, spends in a particular compartment or location before it moves on through a particular process or cycle
saltwater intrusion
Movement of salt water into freshwater aquifers in coastal and inland areas as groundwater is withdrawn faster than it is recharged by precipitation.
saturation point
the maximum concentration of water vapor the air can hold at a given temperature
sinkholes
a large surface crater caused by the collapse of an underground channel or cavern; often triggered by groundwater withdrawal
sublimation
the phase change in which a substance changes from a solid to a gas or vapor without changing to a liquid first
subsidence
A depression of the land surface as a result of groundwater being pumped. Cracks and fissures can appear in the land. Is virtually an irreversible process.
transpiration
the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
watershed
the land of area from which surface runoff drains into a stream, channel, lake, reservoir, or other body of water; also called a drainage basin
water stress
a situation when residents of a country don't have enough accessible, high-quality water to meet their everyday needs
water table
Upper surface of the zone of saturation, in which all available pores in the soil and rock in the earth's crust are filled with water.
zone of aeration
A subsurface zone above the water table where the rock or soil may be moist but not saturated, with air occupying some or all of the pore space; also called the unsaturated zone.
zone of saturation
lower region of groundwater where all the pore spaces in a rock or sediment are filled with water
biochemical oxygen demand
the amount of oxygen required for aeroic organisms to decomose organic material in wastewater over a five- to twenty-day period; the usual measure is five days
coliform bacteria
Bacteria that live in the intestines (including the colon) of humans and other animals, used as a measure of the presence of feces in water or soil.
cultural eutrophication
Overnourishment of aquatic ecosystems with plant nutrients (mostly nitrates and phosphates) because of human activities such as agriculture, urbanization, and discharges from industrial plants and sewage treatment plants.
dissolved oxygen
free oxygen (O2) released into the water by photosynthesis and by air-water interactions; it is essential for the respiration of aquatic animals
eutrophic
a condition in a lake or other body of water that is characterized by lush phytoplanktonic growth followed by high amounts of decay in the bottom resulting in depletion of oxygen in the water column.
nonpoint sources
large or dispersed land areas such as crop fields, streets, and lawns that discharge pollutants into the environment over a large area
oligotrophic
a nutrient poor, oxygen rich, clear, deep lake with few phytoplankton
oxygen sag
Decline in oxygen downstream from a pollution source that introduces materials with high biological oxygen demands.
point sources
specific locations of highly concentrated pollution discharge, such as factories, power plants, sewage treatment plants, underground coal mines, and oil wells
primary treatment
first step of sewage treatment; eliminates most particulate material from raw sewage using grates, screens, and gravity (settling).
red tide
a bloom of dinoflagellates that causes reddish discoloration of coastal ocean waters. Certain dinoflagellates of the genus Gonyamlax produce toxins that kill fish and contaminate shellfish.
secondary treatment
second step of sewage treatment; bacteria breakdown organic waste, aeration accelerates the process.
tertiary treatment
the third level of sewage treatment; chemicals, filters, and radiation are used to remove all particles and all harmful chemicals and bacteria.
thermal plume
Industrial cooling processes often uses heat exchangers to extract excess heat and then discharge it back into the water. Heat sensitive organisms die and other ones that are attracted to heat die when the plant shuts down.

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