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the science of hereditary material and how traits are passed on from parent to offspring


the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring


a genetically determined varient of a characteristic


the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures (anthers) to the tips of female reproductive structures (pistal) of a flower

self pollination

the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to the stigma of the same flower

cross pollination

a reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transfered to the stigma of another

true breeding

describes organisms or genotypes that are homozygous for a specific trait and thus always produce offspring that have the same phenotype for that trait

p generation

parental generation, the first 2 individuals that mate in a genetic cross

F1 generation

the first generation of offspring, offspring of P

F2 generation

the second generation of offspring, offspring of F!


describes the allele that is fully expressed when carried by only one of a pair of homologous chromosomes


describes a trait or allele that is expressed only when 2 ressesive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited

law of segregation

law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes seperate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete

law of independent assortment

law that states that genes seperate independently of one another in meiosis

molecular genetics

the study of the structures of nucleic acids and the function and regulation of genes


one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic


the entire genetic makeup of an organism


an organisms appearence or other detectable characteristic that results from the organisms genotype and the environment


describes an individual that has identical alleles for a trait on both homologous chromosomes


describes an individual that has 2 different alleles for a trait


the likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance or the envent

monohybrid cross

a cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits

punnet square

a graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross

genotypic ratio

the ratio of the genotypes that appear in offspring

phenotipic ratio

the ratio of phenotypes produced by a cross


the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype

complete dominance

a relationship in which one allele is completely dominant over another

incomplete dominance

a condition in which a trait is intermediate between the phenotypes of the parents. the dominat allele is not expressed fully


a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed

dihybrid cross

a cross between individuals that have the different alleles for the same gene

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