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Terms in this set (98)
syndrome, clinically significant, thoughts, feelings, behavior.
a psychological disorder is a _______ marked by a ______ _______ disturbance in a person's ______, _______, or _______.
dysfunctional, maladaptive, variable, culture
disturbed, or ________ thoughts, emotions, or behaviors interfere with everyday life; that is they are ________. this definition emphasizes that standards for determining whether behavior is considered are ________. these standards depend on the situation, the _______ and time.
ADHD, extreme inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity
high-energy children once regarded as normal children running wild are now being diagnosed with ________. the key symptoms of this disorder are _________, ________, and _______.
ADHD is diagnosed more often in ______ than in ______.
over, environment, evolution
skeptics think ADHD is ______ (over/under) diagnosed. they also maintain the real problem lies in the _________ in which children are forced to do what _________ has not prepared them to do.
Drugs used to treat ADHD are classified as _______
medical, illness, symptoms, therapy
the view that psychological disorders are sicknesses is the basis of the _______ model. according to this view, psychological disorders are viewed as mental _______, diagnosed on the basis of ___________, treated, and in most cases cured through _______.
biology, personal, social, cultural
to call psychological disorders "sicknesses" tilts research heavily toward the influence of _______. however, behavior also is influenced by our _______ histories and ______ and ______ surroundings
depression, schizophrenia, bulimia nervosa, symptoms
psychological disorders such as _______and ________ have appeared more consistently worldwide; others, such as ________, ________ are culture-bound. These culture bound disorders may differ in their _______
DSM-5, does not, describes,
the current best scheme for classifying psychological disorders is the american psychiatric association manual, commonly known by its abbreviation, _________. this manual _______ explain the cause of a disorder, rather it ________ the disorder and estimates how often it occurs.
a disorder in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, feelings, and thoughts
an approach that considers behavior disorders as illnesses that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases cured
a psychological disorders marked by emotional extremes
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation
diagnosis criteria, codes
to guide medical diagnoses and define who is eligible for treatment, physicians and mental health workers use the _____ _______ and ______ in the the DSM-5.
autism spectrum disorder
in DSM-5, conditions formerly called "autism" and "Asperger's syndrome" have been combined under the label _____ ______ _______.
hoarding, binge eating
new categories in DSM-5 include ______ disorder and ____ - _____ disorder.
field trials, varied
real-world treats, called ____ _____, of independent diagnoses made by different clinicians show _______ agreement across categories.
increased, increased, significant
one criticism of DSM-5 is that as the number of disorder categories has ______, the number of adults who meet the criteria for at least one disorder has ________. Studies have shown that labeling has a _________ effect on our interpretation of individuals and their behavior.
in real life, people with psychological disorders are ______ likely than those with no diagnosed disorder to commit a violent crime
the view that all behavior arises from the interaction of heredity and environment is referred to as the ________ approach
depression, bulimia nervosa
evidence of environmental effects on psychological disorders is seen in the fact that certain disorders, such as _______, have appeared more consistently worldwide/; others, such as _________, are culture-bound
the effects of drugs that block receptors for dopamine is to _________ _________ symptoms
phobias and panic disorders are classified as ______ ______
according to the social-cognitive perspective, a person who experiences unexpected negative events may develop helplessness and manifest an ______ _____
Evidence of biological influences on anxiety disorders of OCD and PTSD
(A) Identical twins often develop similar phobias. (B) Brain scans of persons with OCD disorder reveal unusually high activity in brain areas involve in impulse control and habitual behavior. (C) Brain pathways resulting from fear-learning experiences create easy inroads for more fear experiences.
most of the hallucinations of schizophrenia patients involve the sense of ______.
bodily arousal, stress hormones
when expecting to be electrically shocked, people with an anti-social personality disorder, as compared with normal people, show little _____ ______ and lower levels of ____ _____
in treating depression, a psychiatrist would probably prescribe a drug that would ______ levels of _____
identical twins often develop ______ _____
high activity, impulse, habitual
brain scans of persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder reveal unusually _____ ____ in brain areas involved in _______ control and ______ behavior
when schizophrenia is slow to develop, called ______ schizophrenia, recover is ________
disordered, culture dependent
definitions of ______ behavior are ______ - ______
a viral infection contracted
research evidence links the brain abnormalities of schizophrenia to _______ during prenatal development
which neurotransmitter is present in overabundant amounts during the manic phase of bipolar disorder?
exaggerate, species survival
compulsive acts typically ______ behaviors that contributed to our _____ _____.
ancestors also feared
most phobias focus on objects that our ______ _____ _____
psychodynamic and learning theorists both agree that the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder are the person's attempt to deal with ______
which of the following is NOT a symptom of schizophrenia?
negative, maladaptive, self defeating
social cognitive theorists believe that depressions is linked with _____ moods, ______ explanations of failure, and ____ -____ beliefs.
which is generally accepted as a possible cause of schizophrenia?
psychoactive drugs affect behavior and perception through altering ______ _____ in the brain
long term, rem sleep, shrink
alcohol has its strongest effect on the transfer of experiences to ____-____ memories in part because alcohol suppresses ___ ___. Prolonged and excessive drinking may cause the brain to _____.
a person who requires increasing amounts of a drug in order to feel its effect is said to have developed a ______
compulsive craving for a drug despite unpleasant consequences and withdrawal symptoms
an extremely elevated mood
a disorder characterized by repetitive thoughts and actions
a disorder marked by disorganized thinking and speech, disturbed perceptions, and/or diminished inappropriate emotional expression
a false sensory experience
a sudden escalation of anxiety often accompanied by a sensation of shocking or other physical symptoms
an individual who seems to have no conscience
a false belief
the diminishing of a psychoactive drug's effect with repeated use
a type of mood disorder
an eating disorder marked by self starvation
an eating disorder marked by binge eating and purging
generalized anxiety disorder, free floating
in the _____ ____ ____, the person is continually tense, fearful, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal for no apparent reason. In freud's term, the anxiety is _____ - ______.
a ____ _____ is an unpredictable episode of intense dread accompanied by chest pain, dizziness, or choking. it is essentially an increase of the anxiety associated with generalized anxiety disorder
_______ is a disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia lasting four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
substance use disorder
a ____ ___ _____ is continued substance craving and use despite significant life disruption and/or physical risk
______ _____ - which include stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens -- are chemical substances that alter mood and perceptions. they work by stimulating, inhibiting, or mimicking the activity of neurotransmitters
________ refers to the discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued use of an addictive drug or behavior
_________ are psychoactive drugs, such as alcohol, opiates, and barbiturates, that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
alcohol use disorder
popularly known as alcoholism, ____ ____ ____ is characterized by the development of alcohol tolerance, withdrawal, and drive to continue use.
________ are depressants, sometimes used to induce sleep or reduce anxiety, they depress central nervous system activity and impair memory and judgment
_______ are depressants that temporary lessen pain and anxiety
________ excite neural activity and speed up body functions
__________ are a type of stimulant and, as such, stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and body functions
nicotine, central nervous, appetite, altertness
_______ is a stimulant drug found in tobacco, it is highly addictive. this drug quickly stimulates the _____ _____ system to release epinephrine and norepinephrine, two transmitters that diminish _____ and boost ______ and mental efficiency.
dopamine, opioids, anxiety, pain
nicotine also stimulates the release of ____ and _____, neurotransmitters that calm _______, and reduce sensitively to ______.
dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine
cocaine depletes the brain's supply of the neurotransmitters ______, _____ and _______ and results in depression as the drugs effects wear off.
schizophrenia, or "split mind", refers not to split personality but rather a split form ________.
disorganized thinking may appear as jumbled ideas that make no sense, called _____ ____
classified as both a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen, _______ produces short term euphoria and social intimacy
___________ are psychedelic drugs, such as LSD and marijuana, that distort perception and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
_______ is a powerful hallucinogen capable of producing perceptual distortions and hallucinations and extreme emotions. It produces its unpredictable effects partially because it block the action of the neurotransmitter serotonin
near death experience
the ______-____ _____ is an altered state of consciousness that has been reported by some people who have had a close brush with death
major depressive disorder
_____ _____ _____ is the mood disorder that occurs when a person exhibits five or more symptoms, atleast one of which must be either a depressed mood or loss of interest or please for more than a two-week period and for no obvious reason
___ _____ is the mood disorder in which a person alternates between depression and the euphoria of a manic state;
dissociative identity disorder
________ ______ ______ is a dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. (multiple personality disorder)
______ _____ is characterized by inflexible and enduring maladaptive character traits that impair social functioning
anxiety disorders differ from normal anxiety in ______ and _______ of the uneasiness.
social anxiety disorder
when a person has an intense fear of being scrutinized by others, the diagnosis is a ______ _____ _____ . People who fear situations in which escape or help might not not be possible when panic strikes suffer from ___________.
unwanted, repetitive, compulsive behaviors
obsessive thoughts are _______ and _______. response to such thoughts are classified as ______ ______.
people who have a sensitive emotion-producing ______ ________ are more vulnerable to PTSD.
survivor resiliency, post traumatic, trauma
after stress, most people display an impressive _______ _________ . also, researchers have pointed that suffering can lead to __________ growth . some researchers believe that this disorder has been over diagnosed, due partly to a broader definition of ______.
freud proposed that anxiety disorders are symptoms of submerged mental energy that occurs because impulses that were ________ during childhood leak out in odd ways.
drawing on experiments in which rats are given unpredictable shocks, researchers link general anxiety with ________ conditioning of _______.
some fears arise from _______ _______, such as when a person who fears heights after a fall also comes
phobias and compulsive behaviors reduce anxiety and thereby are ________. through _______ learning, someone might also learn fear by seeing others display their own fears.
the anxiety response probably ______ (is/is not) genetically influenced.
Julia's psychologists believes that Julia's fear of heights can be traced to a conditioned fear she developed after falling from a ladder. this explanation reflects a _______ perspective.
after falling from a ladder, joseph is afraid of airplanes, although he has never flown. this demonstrates that some fears arise from ______ ______
depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, neurotransmitters
the three broad categories of drugs discussed in the text include _______, which tend to slow body functions; ________ , which speed body functions; and _______, which alter perception. these drugs all work by mimicking, stimulating, or inhibiting the activity of the brain's ______
low doses relax the drinker by slowing _______ nervous system activity. with larger doses, speech slurs, ______ slow, and skilled performance declines
some victims of schizophrenia lapse into zombie-like state of no apparent feeling, or _______ ____
the brain tissue of schizophrenic patients has been found to have an excess of receptors for neurotransmitters _______ .drugs that block these receptors have been found to ______ positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
brain scans have shown that many people suffering from schizophrenia have abnormally _____ brain activity in the ______ lobes.
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