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126 terms

PSY 2012 - Chapter 1,2,3, & 5 Quizzes

Psychology in Action Professor Davis Edison State College Spring 2012
STUDY
PLAY
The cerebral cortex consists of the
frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes
Three structures associated with the brain stem are the _____.
pons, medulla, and the midbrain
This part of the brain is responsible for survival functions such as heart beat and respiration.
brain stem
A main function of the medulla is to _____.
control automatic bodily functions such as respiration and heart rate
Which of the following structures is NOT a part of the forebrain?
A. hypothalamus
B. medulla
C. limbic system
D. cerebral cortex
B. medulla
Three structures included in the hindbrain are the:
medulla, pons, and cerebellum
This structure at the top of the brain stem is involved in respiration, movement, waking, REM sleep, and dreaming.
pons
This structure at the base of the brain behind the brain stem is responsible for maintaining smooth movements, balance, and some aspects of perception and cognition.
cerebellum
The next time you see someone at a party who is having trouble walking properly, you might say, "He has had too much to drink, and it went right to his _____."
cerebellum
The _____ is located near the top of the brainstem and is involved in coordinating eye and body movement, sleep, and arousal.
midbrain
While reading your newspaper in the morning, you notice a crash in the street outside. The part of your brain that refocuses your attention from the paper to the crash is the _____.
reticular formation
The largest and most prominent part of the human brain is the _____.
forebrain
What is the major sensory relay area for the brain?
thalamus
Injury to the thalamus can cause all except which of the following?
loss of smell
Many symptoms of schizophrenia, like hearing voices, misunderstanding social cues, and misinterpreting sensory information could be due to abnormalities in the _____.
thalamus
This is a small structure that maintains homeostasis and regulates emotions and drives such as hunger, thirst, sex, and aggression.
hypothalamus
The hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and hypothalamus are all parts of the _____.
limbic system
Frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes make up the _____.
cerebral cortex
In total, due to the cerebral hemispheres. We have _____ lobes in our brain.
8
Motor control, speech production, thinking, personality, emotion, and memory are all governed by your _____.
frontal lobe
The case of Phineas Gage suggests that the _____ lobes regulate our personality and are largely responsible for much of what makes us uniquely human.
frontal
The _____ lobes are involved with hearing, language comprehension, memory, and some emotional control
temporal
_____ area is found in the temporal lobe, and is involved with language comprehension.
Wernicke's
Vision and visual perception occur in the _____ lobes.
occipital
This is the name of the bundle of nerve fibers that carries information between the brain's right and left hemispheres.
corpus callosum
Your left brain doesn't know what your right brain is doing. It is MOST likely that your _____ has severed.
corpus callosum
The right hemisphere of the brain is specialized for _____ in most adults.
A. musical abilities
B. spatial abilities
C. recognizing facts
D. all of these options
D. all of these options
Both concussion and contusion are types of _______.
traumatic brain injuries
The evolutionary/circadian theory of sleep says that sleep _____.
conserves energy and protects us from predators
REM sleep is also called _____ because the brain is aroused and active while the person remains nonresponsive and asleep.
paradoxical sleep
Which of the following is the CORRECT sequence of sleep stages?
A) non-REM → Stages 1-2-3-4 - REM
B) hypnogogic → Stages 1-2-3-4 - REM - Stages 4-3-2-1
C) hypnogogic → Stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 - REM
D) non-REM → Stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 - REM
C) hypnogogic → Stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 - REM
The _____ state occurs at the beginning of sleep when you may experience visual, auditory, and kinesthetic sensations.
hypnogogic
Darius is sleeping right through the sounds of fire engine and police car sirens right outside his window. It is MOST likely that Darius is _____.
in Stage 4 sleep
This is involved in the operation of circadian rhythms.
A) hypothalamus
B) pineal gland
C) suprachiasmic nucleus
D) all of these options
D) all of these options
Just before sleep, brain waves move from _____ waves, indicating normal wakefulness, to _____ waves associated with drowsy relaxation.
beta; alpha
A mental state other than an ordinary waking state, in which there are distinct changes in perception, emotion, memory, thinking, etc. is called alternate _____.
states of consciousness
As you read this text, you will likely do best if you _____.
employ controlled processing
Scientists study sleep in sleep labs using _____.
EEG recordings
Mental activities that require minimal attention are called _____ processes.
automatic
You are in a sleep lab and have just been hooked up to an EEG, an EMG (for muscle activity), and an EOG (for eye movements). This means the sleep researcher is interested in your _____.
brain waves, facial muscle movements, and eye movements
_____ is (are) BEST defined as our awareness of our environments and ourselves.
Consciousness
Which of the following is a circadian rhythm?
the sleep-wake cycle
Armand is daydreaming, Adele is dreaming while asleep. Which statement is TRUE?
A) Armand is semi-conscious, Adele is unconscious.
B) Armand is semi-conscious, Adele is in an alternate state of consciousness.
C) Both Armand and Adele are in alternate states of consciousness.
D) Armand is in an alternate state of consciousness, Adele is unconscious.
C) Both Armand and Adele are in alternate states of consciousness.
In mid-sentence, your friend suddenly slumps over on the couch and appears to have entered the REM-stage of sleep. Which of the following is the BEST explanation for your friend's behavior?
A) Your friend suffers from epilepsy, and just had a seizure.
B) Your friend suffers from narcolepsy and should seek medical attention.
C) You are boring, and should take a class in social speaking skills.
D) Your friend did not get enough sleep last night, and should go to bed.
B) Your friend suffers from narcolepsy and should seek medical attention.
Consciousness _____.
exists on a continuum
Melatonin influences _____.
sleep
How many cycles of distinct sleep stages do we typically experience during a normal night's sleep?
4-5
The idea that dreams are the by-product of random stimulation of brain cells, and that the brain attempts to combine this spontaneous activity into coherent patterns, is known as the _____ hypothesis of dreaming.
activation-synthesis
Sleepwalking is MOST likely to occur in _____.
NREM sleep
This is NOT a parasomnia.
sleep apnea
Which of the following persons is clearly experiencing chronic insomnia?
A) Kipp frequemtly cannot fall asleep the night before a final exam.
B) Kaula regularly sleeps around 7 hours per night.
C) Consuela persistently has difficulty falling or staying asleep.
D) George wakes up throughout the night because his neighbors make so much noise.
C) Consuela persistently has difficulty falling or staying asleep.
Irvings's doctor prescribed Valium to help him cope with job-related anxiety. He found a less stressful job, and is anxiety-free. However, Irving keeps taking Valium because he likes its effects. He hasn't had to increase the dosage, and he did not have withdrawal symptoms when he forgot to take his pills. It is MOST likely that Irving is _________________.
Psychologically dependent on Valium
This is NOT a major cause of death in the United States today.
A) pneumonia
B) cancer
C) cardiovascular disease
D) chronic lung disease
A) pneumonia
Hans Selye defined stress as
the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it
Hans Selye defined a stressor as
an environmental trigger that prompts a stressful reaction
In your text, the physical and mental arousal to situations that we perceive as threatening or challenging is called _____.
stress
Which of the following is NOT a stressor?
A) winning the lottery
B) a death in the family
C) taking a test
D) all of these options ARE stressors
D) all of these options ARE stressors
You have a minor car accident after which you experience sweaty palms, rapid breathing, and a racing heart. In this situation, _____ is the stressor, and _____ is the stress.
the accident; your physical reaction
According to Selye, pleasant, desirable stress is called _____.
Eustress
According to Selye, distress is _____.
unpleasant
The end result of a total absence of stress is _____.
death
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale constructed by Holmes and Rahe measures the stress in a person's life on the basis of _____.
life changes
Poor working conditions or a bad marriage are classified in your text as:
chronic stressors
_____ is one of the largest sources of chronic stress for adults.
Work
When one is forced to choose between two or more different and incompatible functions, one is experiencing ______.
role conflict
Small problems of daily living that accumulate and sometimes become a major source of stress are called _____.
hassles
_____ is an unpleasant state of tension, anxiety, and heightened sympathetic activity that results from a blocked goal.
Frustration
A negative emotional state caused by having to choose between two or more incompatible goals or impulses is called _____.
conflict
In an approach-approach conflict, a person must choose between two or more goals that will lead to _____.
a desirable result
In an avoidance-avoidance conflict, a person must choose between two or more goals that will lead to _____.
an undesirable result
The most difficult conflict to resolve is usually the _____ conflict.
avoidance-avoidance
The body's immediate fight-or-flight response is facilitated by the _______ system(s).
SAM
According to your text, the chemical that saves to feedback information to the brain about the body's response to stress is _______.
cortisol
The fight or flight response is triggered by the _____ nervous system.
sympathetic
The release of cortisol during the fight or flight response occurs at the end of the _____ pathway.
Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Adrenal cortex
A physiological alarm reaction, followed by resistance, and ending with exhaustion is known as _____.
the general adaptation syndrome
_____ is the field that studies the effects of psychological factors on the immune system.
Psychoimmunology
After exposure to a severe and prolonged stressor, illness and death may occur in the _____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome.
exhaustion
According to your text, most people do NOT have cancer because _____.
the immune system keeps cancer cells in check
The General Adaptation Syndrome indicates that we experience a biological reaction to stress, which occurs in three phases. The first phase is our initial response to a stressor. In the second phase we expend considerable energy to adapt to the stressor. And lastly, if the stressor is prolonged, it will likely result in us feeling depleted of energy, and increase our risk of becoming susceptible to serious illnesses. Identify below the correct order of the three phases:
alarm reaction; resistance; exhaustion
All of the following are effective strategies for stress management EXCEPT:
smoke a cigarette
The interdisciplinary field that studies how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental processes is called ____.
neuroscience
A collection of glands found throughout the body that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream in order to effect behavioral change or maintain normal bodily functions is called the____________________
endocrine system
A neuron is _____.
A cell of the nervous system responsible for receiving and transmitting electrochemical information.
The basic units of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that process, store, and transmit information are the _____.
neurons
The cells that provide structural, nutritional, and other support for neurons are called _____ cells.
glial
The branching neuron structures that receive neural impulses from other neurons and convey them toward the cell body are called _____.
dendrites
The branches of the neuron that receive neural impulses from other neurons are called _____, and the tube-like structure that conveys impulses toward other neurons is called the _____.
dendrites; axon
An impulse travels through the structures of the neuron in the following order:
endrites, cell body, axon
The long tube-like structure that conveys impulses away from the cell body toward other neurons, muscles, or glands is called a(n) _____.
axon
The _____ is another name for the cell body.
soma
The BEST definition of the myelin sheath is a _____.
fatty insulation wrapped around some axons that increases the rate at which impulse travel along the axon
Rosa has multiple sclerosis, a degenerative disorder that causes myelin to disintegrate. What effect is this going to have on Rosa's nerve impulses?
They will slow down.
Lynn has a disease that makes her muscle coordination difficult called Multiple Sclerosis (MS). MS results from _____.
progressive deterioration of the myelin sheath
What is the basic function of a neuron?
to transmit information to and from the brain and spinal cord
The tips of the branches of the axon are called _____.
terminal buttons
Neurotransmitters are __________.
released from the terminal button of a cell
This neurotransmitter affects sleep, appetite, and emotional states, among other behaviors.
serotonin
Certain forms of depression are related to lowered levels of _____.
serotonin
This neurotransmitter is suspected of playing a role in Alzheimer's disease.
acetylcholine
acetylcholine
all of these options
A chemical substance in the nervous system that is involved in pain control, pleasure, and memory is _____.
endorphins
When an axon is not stimulated it is in a polarized state called _____.
the resting potential
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
In your text, psychology is defined as the _____.
critical thinking
In your textbook, the process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing, and synthesizing information is called _____.
describe, explain, predict, and change behavior
According to your textbook, the goals of psychology are to _____.
influence of culture and social interactions on people's behavior
Sociocultural psychology is the study of the ______________________.
psychiatrist
You decide you want to work in the mental health field. Which of the following careers will allow you to prescribe medication to psychiatric patients?
A) health psychologist
B) psychiatrist
C) clinical psychologist
D) none of these options
social
Lloyd is fascinated by interpersonal behavior, especially prejudice and other attitudes. It is likely that Lloyd is a(n) ___________ psychologist.
Wilhelm Wundt
The father of psychology is ________.
Wundt & Titchener; introspection
The psychological school of thought called structuralism is associated with _____, and engages in the method of studying experience called _____.
Established a model for the scientific study of mental processes.
Structuralism made an important contribution to the science of psychology because it ________________.
Expanded the scope of psychology to consider such topics as emotion and observable behavior.
Functionalism made an important contribution to the science of psychology because it ____________________.
Freud
The psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective is associated with _____.
Sigmund Freud
Psychotherapy or 'talk therapy" was developed by whom?
Behavioral perspective.
The psychological perspective that emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences of overt behavior is called the __________________________.
behaviorism
Dr. Watson, from the _____ school of psychology, focused on objective, observable behavior rather than on the unconscious
Humanistic
The psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s that stressed free will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking was the __________ perspective.
cognitive
The psychological perspective that studies how we gather, encode, and store information is the ________ perspective.
Mental processes such as thinking, perception, and information processing
Cognitive psychology focuses on ___________________.
biopsychosocial
The idea that depression is influenced by genetics and neurotransmitters, learned responses and thinking patterns, and socioeconomic status and culture represents the _____ model of psychology.
structuralism: observable behavior
Which of the following terms do NOT belong together?
A) structuralism: observable behavior
B) behaviorism: stimulus-response
C) psychoanalytic: unconscious conflict
D) cognitive: thought
advances scientific knowledge
The term basic research is BEST defined as research that _____.
reviewing the literature of existing theories
The first step in the scientific method is ________ .
positively; negatively
Salary and years of education are ____________ correlated, and grade point average and the number of hours of television watched per day are ______________ correlated.
exposure to the drug; quiz scores
If researchers gave participants varying amounts of a new "memory" drug and then gave them a story to read and measured their scores on a quiz, the ______________would be the independent variable (IV), and the __________would be the dependent variable (DV).