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World History--Semester 1 Final
Terms in this set (61)
5. What was the Neolithic Revolution?
the Neolithic Revolution refers to the change in human societies from hunting and gathering to a more settle way of life based on agriculture and the domestication of animals
6. List the 7 features of a civilization.
Arts and Architecture
7.Compare and Contrast anthropology and archaeology.
anthropology--the study of humans past and present --look at the development of society
archaeology-- the study of past people and cultures through their material remains--uses the material objects.
8. Where was the first River Valley and known civilization located?
9. What was the earliest form of writing? Describe it.
Cuneiform-scribes wrote by making wedge shaped marks on clay tablets.
10. Explain what it means for a civilization to be monotheistic? How does this differ from a civilization that is polytheistic?
Monotheistic=believing in one God
Polytheistic=believing in many/multiple Gods
11. Why was Abraham important to the group of people known as the Israelite's?
Considered a father of this group of people.
He was believed to be in communication with God and was chosen to spread the message.
12. What River runs through Egypt making it one of the River Valley civilizations?
The Nile River
13. Who are prophets? What role did they serve/What did they teach?
They were spiritual leaders who spread the religious teachings as well as taught ethics
15. What is a pharaoh? Which pharaoh was known for his military victories?
pharaoh is an Egyptian ruler
16. Why did Egyptians believe in Mummification?
The preservation of dead bodies by embalming them.
It was to protect and prepare them for the afterlife. At first privilege only for the rulers and nobles
17. What are hieroglyphics?
a form of picture writing--Egyptians used symbols or pictures to represent objects
18. Explain what the Rosetta Stone is and why it is important.
Rosetta Stone--flat black stone with hieroglyphics, demotic script, and Greek
it helped to decipher or determine the meaning of the Hieroglyphics
19. Describe the structure of Aryan society? (What are the Social classes)
Vaisya=herders, farmers, and merchants
Sudras= laborers, servants
20. In Hinduism what is the role of reincarnation in achieving moksha?
Most people cannot achieve moksha in one lifetime so they are reborn. This reincarnation allows people to work toward moksha through several lifetimes.
21. What is the final goal of Buddhim in their practice of the religion?
22. What is a subcontinent? What is a plateau?
subcontinent=a large landmass that juts out from a continent
plateau= raised area of level land
23. The Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path have a key role in which Religion?
They are seen as being a middle ground between a life devoted to pleasure and one based on harsh self-denial
24. Which emperor was known for uniting India?
26. Compare and Contrast Confucianism and Daoism in their approach to life?
Confucianism=wanted social order, taught harmony which occurred when people accepted their place in society
wanted order with human affairs
Daoism=sought to live in harmony with nature
27. How was the Silk Road used to bring ideas to and from China?
Trading their goods with other countries allowed them to be exposed to new cultures. New foods and materials would be brought into the area that they normally would not have had or seen before.
29. Who was China's "First Emperor" who united much of China and even built the Great Wall?
30. What was the first American Civilization?
31. What was the Iroquois League and what purpose did it serve?
An alliance of five Iroquois groups and it acted as a political system to stop the constant wars
33. What were the three major civilizations that were established in Mesoamerica?
The Maya, Aztec, and the Inca
34. What were the 3 early Aegean civilizations?
Minoan , Mycenaean, and Dorian
35. What is known about the causes of the Trojan War?
May have had origins in economic rivalry over trade between Mycenae and Troy
other legends point to the prince of Troy stealing the wife of the Greek King
battle lasted for 10 years
36. What is an acropolis? Describe what this would have looked like?
would have had a marble temple at the top with a walled city on the flat ground below
37. What are seen as being the main difference between Athens and Sparta?
Athens=more focused on knowledge and learning, great cultural center, known for very knowledgeable people
Sparta=more focused on military, stronger fighters and more ruthless, known for strength in battles
38. What is a city-state?
a political unit that includes a city and its surrounding lands and villages
39. We discussed 3 great philosophers what were their names?
42. Describe the accomplishments of Alexander the Great?
He conquered Persia
He founded many new cities
Encouraged the blending of cultures
43. What is a patrician?
in Roman society
they are members of the landholding upper class
44. What is a plebeian?
in Roman society
They are the farmers, merchants and artisans who made up most of the population
45. What was one of the early groups that settled in Italy?
46. Give examples of Roman Principles of Government that were incorporated into the U.S. Constitution.
and a system of checks and balances
47. Describe some of Julius Caesar's accomplishments?
- program to employ the jobless
-gave public land to the poor
-reorganized the government
-introduced a new calendar
48.Describe the accomplishments of Augustus.
-high level jobs given based on talent not on class
-created a civil service to enforce the laws
49. What was the Pax Romana?
200 year span that began with Augustus and ended with Marcus Aurelius
--means Roman Peace
50. What two things did Constantine do to change the course of European history?
-He granted toleration to Christians
-He set up the new capital at Byzantium that he renamed Constantinople
53. What were the central ideas in Christianity?
-Jesus emphasized God's love and taught the need for justice, morality, and service to others--emphasized the importance of forgiveness
55. Charlemagne was the King of what group of people?
A Germanic group known as--the Franks
57. Describe feudalism? What is the feudal contract?
-feudal contract=an exchange of pledges between lords and vassals
-feudalism=loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord
lord would grant his vassal a FIEF= or estate (land)
59. Describe the life of a knight? What is the code of chivalry?
-knight--mounted warrior would begin training at the age of 7, as experience was gained would participate in tournaments, abide by a code of chivalry.
-Chivalry--required knights to be brave, loyal and true to their word. Had to fight fairly and were expected to take care of the weak
61. Describe the manor system (manorialism)
Under this system the lord of the manor exercised legal and economic power over the peasants who lived on the estate. He would provide land and protection and in return the peasants owed their lord labor and goods.
62. What was the Great Schism?
--the permanent split between eastern and western Christianity
-The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church
63. What were the Crusades? Who fought? What were they fighting for?
Crusades--a series of wars in which Christians battled Muslims for control of land in the Middle East
The main goal for fighting was to gain control of Jerusalem because both religious groups felt they had a claim to it.
64. What is the Black Death? How did the Black Death spread?
an epidemic of the bubonic plague that ravage Europe in the 1300s (epidemic=outbreak of rapid-spreading disease)
--this disease was spread by fleas carried on rats (the rats would have been in part transported across Europe by ship)
66. Who fought in the Hundred's Year War? What events led to the start of the war?
-England and France fought
-Began when Edward III of England claimed the French crown
67. Who was Muhammad?
an Arab man whom Muslims honor as the prophet of Islam, he was born in the oasis town of Mecca
68. What is the Quran?
The sacred text of Islam
--teaches that God is all powerful and compassionate
69. What are the 5 pillars of Islam?
--make a declaration of faith
--pray five times a day
--give charity to the poor
--fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan
--make a pilgrimage if a person is able to
70. What are the two main branches of Islam?
72. Where is the Ottoman Empire located?
--present day Turkey
73. Describe two of the climate zones of Africa.
savannas--or grassy plains
the Sahara--the largest desert in the world
74. In ways did outside influences affect Nubian development?
--they modeled palaces and pyramids on Egyptian style
They used Egyptian titles and worshiped some of the same Gods
75. Why did having a surplus lead to more trade?
--Having extra goods that they did not have need for allowed them to trade for items that they would normally not have or not have much of
76. Who was Mansa Musa?
--The greatest Mali ruler
77. What two items were largely traded in Africa?
78. Describe Swahili? What is it?
a Bantu-based language, blending Arabic words and written in Arabic script
82.What religions were present in Africa?
--Traditional beliefs--gods and goddess but also believed in the spirits of ancestors
--Judaism (in Northern Africa)
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