Compliance, following rules, & being neat are valued in school, and are often traits of girls more than boys.
Male teachers perceive males students more positively and smart, as did female teachers.
Boys are more likely to have a learning disability, ADHD, and drop out of school.
Girls are more compliant, so boys demand more attention. This compliance comes at a cost = diminished assertiveness.
Teachers spend more time interacting with boys, and girls work quietly on their own.
Teachers give boys more time to answer, more hints, & more tries if answer is wrong.
Kohlberg's theory on moral development (how adolescents think about right and wrong):
Overall idea - people's moral decisions move from heavily influenced by external reasons to more complex influence of multiple perspectives.
Level 1 - Preconventional Reasoning (before 9 years of age)
Stage 1: Punishment & Obedience Orientation - moral thinking is tied to punishment
Stage 2: Individualism, instrumental purpose, & exchange - What's right involves equal exchange
"What's in it for me?"
Level 2 - Conventional Reasoning (early adolescence)
Stage 3: Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, & interpersonal conformity - Individuals value trust, caring, & loyalty to others as basis for moral judgment (adopt parent's moral standards to be "good girl/boy.").
Most adolescents are in Level 2, Stage 3, but many waiver between stage 2-4
Stage 4: Social Systems morality - moral judgments based on social order, law, justice, and duty (for a community to work effectively, it needs to be protected by laws that are adhered to by its members).
Interesting statistic - only 62% of 36 year olds
NOTICE: moral decisions go beyond intimate acquaintances to larger understanding of being a good citizen.
Level 3: Postconventional Reasoning - Morality is more internal
Stage 5: Social contract & individual rights - values, rights, and principles transcend the law. A person evaluates the validity of laws and examines social systems in terms of the degree in which they protect human rights.
Appears around age 20-22. but never characterized more that 10% of individuals
Stage 6: Universal ethical principles - moral based in universal human rights. When faced with conflict between conscience and law, person will follow conscience even when it involves personal risk.
Very few people get to this stage
Recently removed from Kohlberg's scoring manual, but remains theoretically important to understanding moral development.
Thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong.
5 basic questions to understand moral development:
1 - How do adolescents reason, or think, about rules for ethical conduct?
Cheating - should a student cheat or not? Focus on reasoning used by student.
2 - How do adolescents actually behave in moral circumstances?
Cheating - do students take out notes, look at neighbor, etc.
3 -- How do adolescents feel about moral matters?
Does students feel enough guilt to resist temptation? Does it keep them from cheating next time?
4 -- What comprises an adolescent's moral personality?
Does student have moral identity/character so strong as to resist cheating?
5 - How is the adolescent's moral domain different from the social conventional, & personal domains?
Moral Domain - Cheating, harming others, lying
Social Domain - Cutting in line, speaking out of turn
Personal Domain - Choosing a friend
Setting where individual lives (ie. Family, peers, work, teachers, etc)
Links between microsystems
Influences from another setting (parents' jobs, school, etc)
Outside student's direct involvement
Culture in which student lives (nation [US FMLA], religion and
region [TX], Laws [hourly sick-leave])
Socio-historical circumstances (historical policies/privileges, child labor movement, etc)
Adolescent Changes - Puberty, expanded logical reasoning, increasingly idealistic thinking, changes in schooling, peers, friendships, dating, & movement towards independence.
- Cognitive Changes: adolescents can reason in more logical ways. No longer can parents get away with saying, "Because I said so!"
Parental Changes- parental changes that affect parent-adolescent relation involve:
Marital satisfaction (usually increases after adolescents leave home).
Economic burdens (greater economic burden when children are in adolescence)
Career reevaluation & time constraints (am I as successful as I thought I would be?)
Same time adolescents look to future with unbounded optimism
Health & body concerns (concerns with health & sexual attractiveness)
Same time adolescents are at peak of attractiveness, strength, & health.