56 terms

Western Civil 2nd Test

Ch 20, 21, 22,
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Industrial Revolution
it had an impact on society, the growth transformed the economic and structure in europe, a quantum leap in products. It spread from Europe to the New World, it dramatically decreased the amount of human and animal labor, productivity increased
Industrialization created
a new source of energy and power:
1. coal and steam replaced water and wind
2. decreased human and animal labor
3. productivity increased
4. new ways of organizing human labor were now needed (a middle class rise, white collar workers )
5. Factories replaced workshops
Factory conditions
early factories were very bad for the worker, unsafe, no protection for the workers ,
Work Reforms
Reformers called for work enviorment change because of working condition. Women were treated very badly and children were working as young as 7 yrs old.
Traditions and Population
Europe now shifted from traditional to labor intensive.
Great Britain
1750 and is where the industrial revolution began in last part of the 18th century, it was the wealthiest country world
Germany and The United states
50 yrs after the Industrial Revolutions started both countries surpassed Great Britains wealth.
Origin of Agriculture
18th Century, new farming methods, more food with less labor,
The cotton Industry
was the future, yarn production was increased by several new innovations, new factories were located nearby streams and rivers, allowing the use of water power,
The steam Engine
it revolutionized production, 1760 watt creates a steam powered engine to pump water from mines, he then adapts to rotory engine that truned a shaft to drive machinery, steam could now be applied to spinning and weaving cotton, since steam engines were driven by coal... factories did not need to be located nearby streams, British cotton goods during tis time were sold everywhere in the world.
The iron industry
new methods of smelting iron ore were developed , higher quality of iron was the result, a boom in the iron industry ensued, 1740: 17,000 tons 1852:3 million tons
transportation
new roads and canals were built then came railroads, 1804: Richard Trevithick pioneers the first steam locomotive, 1840: Britain had 2,000 miles of track, by 1850: it rose to 6,000 miles, the railroad also created many new jobs opportunities, new investment opportunities created new markets, and new wealth, rapid, self sustaining economic growth was the result
the industrial factory
the factory became the primary means of organizing labor for the new machines, shifts were created to keep the machines constantl running, the "clock" began to run people's lives.
spread of industrialization
...industrialization soon spread to continental Europe, then america, france and Germany. 1750 Britain was the wealthiest country in the world due to the industrial revolution, it spread throughout Europe, then inot the New World, over the next 50 yrs.... Germany and the UsA wold both surpass Great Britain in industrial production
Agricultural Revolution
18th Century new farming methods, more food with less labor, lower food prices, people now had more money to buy products, rapid population growth, surplus labor for factories, Supply of capital, more capital for investments in new industrial machines, and effective banking system.
Britain
they were fascinated by wealth and commerce, political power rested in the hands of a progressive people who favored innovation, mineral sources, Britain had ample supplies of coal and iron ore, the relatively small size of Britain mad transportation easy and new infrastructure, internal trade was easier than many European countries. Parliament contributed to favorable business practices and encouraged private enterprise.
Markets
British exports quadrupled, a vast colonial empire opened many new markets, a well developed merchant marine made transport easy, an ability to produce items cheaply that were most in demand, the best new markets were in the Americas, Africa and the East, entrepreneurs sought to out new inventions to increase production
Limits to Industrialization
lack of infrastructure made transportation difficult in other European countries, mos were still agrarian, entrepreneurs wee less enterprising than the British, upheavals associated with the French Revolution also affected much of the Continental Europe, trade had suffered, loss of manpower, political and social instability, the gap between britain and Continental Europe soon widened.
The United States
1800: the us was an agrarian society, 6of every 7 workers were farmers, 1800: population grew 30 million, 1 of every 2 workers were now farmers, by 1815: the us began to surpass britain in technological advances, many new items including: Weapons with the interchangeable parts... lowering production cost, unlike britain ... the US was a large country, the transport of goods initially limited economic development, but ... thousands of miles of roads and canals were soon built linking east and west.railroads further assisted in the development of the transportation system
The Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution
the Industrial Revolution would radically alter social life in Europe
vast changes in the demographics followed
European Population Growth
1750: 140 million
1800: 187 million
1850: 266 million
the death-rate declined
food supply contributed, helping to resist disease
over-population became a problem in the countryside
Ireland
the potato was the staple food
only 1 or 2 acres was sufficient to feed a family
as a result, the population rose
1780-1840: the population doubled (4>8 million)
1845: a potato blight decimated Ireland
1845-51: the Great Famine killed 1 million
The Growth of Cities
by 1850: London was joined by 27 other growing British cities
Urban Cities conditions
the dramatic industrial growth led to dramatic growth of cities
living conditions in the cities had been horrible
industrialization intensified the problem
row-houses were often over-crowded
sanitary conditions were appalling...city streets were often used as sewers
towns and cities would become death traps, rife with disease
Urban City Reform
some of the wealthy felt threatened by the deterioration in the city, and began to call for reforms
Governments got involved
removal of sewage and fresh supplies of water were foremost
New Middle Class
Industrial Capitalism led directly to the creation of a Middle class
Middle Class: commerce, industry, banking, professionals
Industrial Entepreneurs
constructed factories, purchased new machines, discovered new markets
as opportunities for making money increased...so did the risk
Competition>Expansion>Reinvestment
investors saw that great profits were possible
as the new bourgeoisie gained new wealth...they sought to gain the political power that accompanied wealth
Workers
early 19th century: majority of urban workers were artisans and craftspeople
work days= ranged from 12-16 hrs/day, 6 days/week, 1/2 hr for lunch/dinner
no job security existed...neither did minimum wage
cotton mills and mining were the toughest work environments
children and women were employed in large numbers in both factories and mines
1833: (Britain) children under 18 made ip 30% of the total cotton factory workforce
parish officials would apprentice orphans or deserted children off to the factory
1830-40: reforms were passed to alleviate child labor
by 1830: women and children made up 2/3rds
Standards of Living
the gap between rich and poor soon widened
based on wages, prices, and consumptions
however... the Middle Class could now claim an increased standard of living
Change for the Worker
Labor Organizations: in order to gain decent wages and better working conditions
Trade Unions- skilled workers, served 2 purposes
1- to preserve the workers' positions by limiting entry into their trade
2- to gain benefits from their employers
Trade Union Movement
strikes broke out in various British cities
Parliament got involved
Legislation allowed authorities to keep a close eye on union activity
Reformers in Goverment
the main issue facing reformers was the effect of industrialization on the poor
poverty, degradation, and suffering were increasing at dramatic rates
a series of acts were passed
they limited working hours for children ages 9-16 (12hrs/day)
children under 9 couldn't work
they were to be educated in reading and arithmetic during working hours
but... these new acts had limited reach
Factory Act of 1833: now included all textile mills, children between 9-13 could only work 8 hrs/day
Industrial Revolution Conclusion
the Industrial Revolution led Western Civilization into the machine-dependent modern world
people were capable of dominating nature, attaining new levels of material prosperity, and production impressive machines
the down-side was dehumanization of the workforce, alienation of one's work, and the natural world
European society was transformed
the industrial Proletariat became an entirely new force of change
a new industrial Middle-Class was also created
1815
Rulers wanted stability
they tried to re-established much of the Old Order
kings and aristocrats would regain control
However...it was too late...the West had changed
Liberalism and Nationalism would give rise to new revolts, then widespread revolution by 1848
most eventually failed
but...both the French and Industrial Revolutions now made it impossible to return to the "Old Ways"
1848= year of revolution (11 revolutions that year)
Conservative Order
a desire to contain revolution...and revolutionary forces
The Peace Settlement: Congress of Vienna
before the actual defeat of Napoleon...his enemies (Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia) had made an agreement to remain united
they would plan to defeat France...then insure peace after the war
the Quadruple Alliance would then restore the Bourbon monarchy to France (Louis XVIII)
Austrian Foreign Minister Prince Clemens von Metternich led the Congress
he was an experienced diplomat
a strict Conservative
he also had an agenda
The principal of Legitmacy
in order to reestablish peace and stability in Europe...
... he felt it was necessary to restore legitimate monarchs that could preserve traditional institutions
this was already occurring in France and Spain
as well as in several Italian states
Prussia and Austria were allowed to keep some Polish territories
a new independent Polish state (much smaller than previous) was then established
the Romanov Dynasty of Russia would be its hereditary monarch
Poland would remain under Russian control
Prussia would be compensated for giving back some Polish territory by receiving 40% of Saxony
Austria was compensated for its loss of Belgium by gaining control over 2 Italian provinces (Lombardy, Venetia
Prussia and Austria were strengthened in order to keep balance with Russian gains
New Balance of Power
diplomats believed that they had now achieved a Balance of Power
Metternich also believed that this would prevent future conflicts
France still remained a great power
there were fears that France would rise up and upset the "delicate balance" that diplomats had now created
defensive barriers were established...in order to contain further French expansion
they enlarged the kingdon of the Netherlands
...under a new ruler, King William I of Orange
the German states became the "German Confederation"
Napoleon's escape from Elba during the congress actually delayed negotiations
his escape only lasted 100 days
the French, however, were punished for their enthusiastic response regarding Napoleon's brief return
France was also forced to accept an occupation army for 5 years
the result would actually manage to avoid European conflict for almost 100 years
The Ideology of Conservatism
Conservatism reaction contained the Liberal and Nationalistic forced that had been unleashed during the French Revolution
Conservatism: based on tradition, social stability, maintaining established institutions, organized religion, obedience to authority, resisting rapid change
gradual, systematic change was acceptable
following the radicalism of the Revolution, some Conservatives favored a return to absolute monarchy
which could "guarantee order in society"
thereby avoiding the chaos of the Revolution
they resisted liberal calls for civil liberties and representative govts.
the community takes precedence over individual rights
society must be organized
Intervention
stated that have gone through a revolution (which threaten other states)...cease to be members of the European alliance
will be excluded until they become stable
if immediate danger threatens other states... the Powers will then use peaceful or military means to bring back the guilty state into the Great Alliance
in other words: the great powers of Europe would have the right to send in their armies to bring back legitimate monarchs to their throne
Britain did not fully support Metternich's principle
Austria, Prussia, and Russia did
they all ignored the protests of G. Britain
Revolt in Latin America
Spain and Portugal controlled Latin America
when Napoleon conquered Spain, Spanish colonial control in the New World had weakened
1810: Argentina gained independence from Spain
1817: Jose de San Matin frees Chile, moves into Peru (and with the help of Bolivar) frees peru in 1824
soon Mexico and some Central American provinces would also gain their independence
1825: Portugal grants independence to Brazil
Continental powers in Europe soon sought to regain Spanish control in Latin America
the British once-again opposed this
They tried to gain control...and looked to ally with the United States
Brits would attempt to keep the rest of Europe out of Latin America
President James Monroe takes matter into his own hands
1823: he guarantees the independence of all Latin American countries...then warns Europeans of any further intervention (Monroe Doctrine)
Simon the Liberator
Frees:
Bolivia in 1809
Colombia in 1819
Venezuela :1821
Greek Revolt
1821: the Greeks revolt against the Ottoman Turks
1827: a British and French fleet defeats the Turkish Armada off the coast of Greece
1828: Russia then declares war on the Ottoman Empire
they invaded the provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia
1829: Treaty of Adrianople- Russia receives a "protectorate" over these 2 provinces
Retoration in France
Louis XVIII knew that change was needed
he accepted the Napoleonic Civil Code
a bicameral legislature was established
Louis was then criticized by a group of ultra royalists
1824: Louis XVIII dies
his brother Charles X succeeds him
he supports the aristocrats
encouraged the Church to re-establish control
1827: after public outrage, the liberal press forced the king to compromise
ministers of the king now answered to the legislature
1829: Charles then violates his agreement forcing more protest
France was once-again on the brink of revolution
Intervention in the Italian States and Spain
in Italy: the Congress of Vienna created separate stated there
much of it would be under Austrian domination
Secret Societies were then formed out of nationalistic dreams for independence
Carbonari: began to conspire and plan for revolution
Central Europe
the Holy Roman Empire= 38 sovereign states
Austria and Prussia were the 2 great powers, while the remaining states varied in size
they formed the Germanic Confederation
But...it had not central leadership
Germans would look to Prussia for leadership
Liberal or Nationalistic movements were limited to University professors and students
Burschenshaftem: students societies for a free and united Germany
their motto was "Honor, Liberty, Fatherland"
the Burschenshaften soon became more radical
at the 300th Anniversary of Luther's 95 These....the crowd burned books
when a deranged student assassinated a playwright, Metternich took action
he shut down the Burschenshaften....censored the press... then placed the universities under close control
Austrian Empire
multinational, under Hapsburg rule
11 different national origins, including:
Germans, Czechs, Hungarians, Slovaks, etc.
although the Hungarians strove to break the Empire apart
Metternich managed to hold it together...even thought the forces of Liberalism and Nationalism were growing within
Russia Tsar
early 19th century: Russia was extremely rural agricultural
the Tsar was a divine-right monarch
1825: when Tsar Alexander I died...the Northern Union makes it move
Alexander's brother Constantine then renounces his claim to the throne
his brother Nicholas is next in line
this angers the Northern Union
troops loyal to Nicholas now crush the Union rebellion
Nicholas takes the throne
he pledged to avoid rebellion at all costs
he creates the Secret Police...in order to crush any thought of rebellion in Russia
The Ideologies of Change
by 1830: powerful movements of change were at work
Conservatism was in trouble
Economic and Political Liberism
it grew from the Enlightenment and American/French Revolutions
it appealed to the new Industrial Middle-class
they felt that people should be free from as much restraint as possible
Economic Liberalism (Classical Economics)
Laissez-faire: no state intervention
govt. should not restrain the economic liberty of the individual
govt. should restrict itself to 3 basic functions:
-defense of the country
-police protection of the individual
-construction of infrastructure
individuals could then bring about the maximum good for the maximum number...benefiting the general welfare of society
Thomas Mathus 1766-1834
population (when unchecked) increases at a geometric rate, while food supply will increase at a much slower rate
if population growth is not held in check the result will be severe overpopulation...
and ultimate starvation of the human race
Nature also will impose a major restraint
disease, poverty, epidemics
misery and poverty were inevitable...due to the Law of Nature
David Ricardo 1772-1883
an increase in population means more workers
more workers...in turn.. causes wages to fall below subsistence levels the result in misery and starvation
which reduce the population
Then...the number of workers declines
wages rise above subsistence levels
which in turn...encourages workers to have larger families
the cycle continues.....
Political Liberalism
protection of civil liberties, basic human rights
equality before the law, freedom of assembly, speech, the press
religious toleration for all, separation of Church and State
the right of peaceful opposition to the govt.
the making of laws by a representative assembly
a written document should guarantee these rights
Political Liberalism supported:
Constitutional Monarchy, limiting the powers of govt.
Ministers were responsible to the legislature, not to the king
the right to vote and hold office
only to those that met certain property qualifications
Liberalism was tied to Middle-Class men
the Lower class was not to share power
Liberals were not "Democrats" of today
Nationalism
became a powerful ideology of change during the 19th century
arose out of community (a nation), with common institutions, traditions, language, and customs
Nationalists believed that each nationality should have its own govt.
divided Germans believed that they should have their own nation with one central govt.
Hungarians wanted autonomy, rather than be subjects to a German minority within a multi-national empire
Nationalism threatened to upset the existing political order
a united Germany/Italy would upset the Balance of Power established in 1815
Conservatives soon attempted to suppress the radical threat of Nationalism
Nationalism and Liberalism soon became strong allies
Nationalists believed that once each people obtain their own state
all nations would then be linked together into a broader community of all Humanity
Early Socialism
Karl Marx
it was the product of political theorists who wanted to introduce equality into social conditions
they believed that human cooperation was superior to the competition fostered by Capitalism
Marxists later coined these early socialists as Utopian Socialists
they were against private property and the competitive spirit of Capitalism