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165 terms

Med Term Ch 4,5,6

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chromatin
structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins
chromosome
threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that carries heredity information encoded in genes
cytoplasm
jellylike substance found within the cell membrane composed of proteins, salts, water, dissolved gases, and nutrients,
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenever the cell divides
diaphram
muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
metabolism
sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism
organelle
cellular structure that provides a specialized function, such as the nucleus (reproduction), ribosomes (protein synthesis), Golgi apparatus (removal of material from the cell), and lysosomes (digestion)
pathology
study of the nature of diseases, their causes, development, and consequences
peristalsis
Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the walls of a tubular organ to propel its contents onward
Level of organization in the body from least to most complex:
Cell, tissue, organ, system, organism
cytology
study of the body at the cellular level
tissues
groups of cells that perform a specialized activity
histology
study of tissues
Epithelial tissues
covers surfaces of organs, lines cavities and canals, forms tubes and ducts, provides the secreting portions of glands and makes up the epidermis of the skin
Connective tissue
supports and connects other tissues and organs. Made up of diverse cell types, including fibroblasts, fat cells and blood
Muscle tissues
provides the contractile tissue of the body, which is responsible for movement
Nervous tissue
transmits electrical impulses as it relays information throughout the entire body
Organism
complete living existence capable of independent existence
anatomical position
body posture used to locate anatomical parts in relation to each other (body is erect and eyes are looking forward. upper limbs hang to the sides, with palms facing forward, lower limbs parallel, with toes pointing straight ahead)
plane
an imaginary flat surface used by anatomists to identify the different sections of the body
mid-sagittal (median)
commonly used plant to identify section of the body
right and left halves
coronal (frontal)
commonly used plant to identify section of the body
anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects
transverse (horizontal)
commonly used plant to identify section of the body
superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects
The body has two major cavities:
1. Dorsal (posterior): cranial & spinal cavaties
2. Ventral (anterior): thoracic & abdominopelvic cavaties
Dorsal cavity -Cranial
Brain
Dorsal Cavity -Spinal
Spinal cord
Ventral Cavity - Thoracic
Heart, lungs and associated structures
Ventral Cavity - Abdominopelvic
Digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs and structures
Two anatomical methods used to divide the Abdominopelvic area:
1. Quadrants
2. Regions
Quadrants
four divisions of the lower torso used to show topographical location (used to locate sites for descriptive and diagnostic purposes)
Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)
Right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)
Left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
Part of small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter
Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
Part of small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter
Spine is divided into sections:
cervical (neck); thoracic (chest; lumber (loin); sacral (lower back); coccyx (tailbone)
superior to
above
Left hypochondriac
Upper left region beneath the ribs
Epigastric
Region above the stomach
Right hypochondriac
Upper right region beneath the ribs
Left lumbar
Left middle lateral region
Umbilical
Region of the naval
Right lumbar
Right middle lateral region
Left inguinal (iliac)
Left lower lateral region
Hypogastric
Lower middle region beneath the navel
Right inguinal (iliac)
Right lower lateral region
Abduction
movement away from the midsagittal (median) plane of the body of one of its parts
Adduction
movement toward the midsagittal (median) plane of the body
Medial
pertaining to the midline of the body or structure
Lateral
Pertaining to a side
Superior (cephalad)
toward the head or upper portion of a structure
Inferior (caudal)
away from the heard, or toward the tail or lower part of a structure
Proximal
nearer to the center (trunk of he body) or to the point of attachment to the body
Distal
Further away from the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment to the body
Anterior (ventral)
Front of the body
Posterior (dorsal)
Back of the body
Parietal
Pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity
Visceral
Pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs
Prone
Lying on the abdomen, face down
Supine
Lying horizontally on the back, face up
Inversion
Turning inward or inside out
Eversion
Turning outward
Palmar
Pertaining to the palm of the hand
Plantar
Pertaining to the sole of the foot
Superficial
Toward the surface of the body (external)
Deep
Away from the surface of the body (internal)
cyt/o
cell - cytologist - specialist in study of cells
hist/o
tissue - histology - study of tissues
-logist
specialist in the study of
-logy
study of
kary/o
nucleus
nucle/o
nucleus
karyolysis
destruction of the nucleus
-lysis
separation, destruction, loosening
nuclear
pertaining to the nucleus
-ar
pertaining to
anter/o
anterior , front
caud/o
tail
caudad
toward the tail
-ad
toward
crani/o
cranium (skull)
cranial
pertaining to the cranium
-al
pertaining to
dist/o
far, farthest
distal
pertaining to the farthest (point of attachment)
dors/o
back (of body)
dorsal
pertaining to the bak (of the bod)
infer/o
lower, below
inferior
pertaining to a lower (structure or surface)
later/o
side, to one side
lateral
pertaining to a side
medi/o
middle
medi/ad
toward the middle
poster/o
back (of body) behind posterior
posterior
pertaining to the back (of the body)
-ior
pertaining to
proxim/o
near, nearest
proximal
pertaining to the nearest (point of attachment)
ventr/o
belly, belly side
ventral
pertaining to the belly side
abdomin/o
abdomen - abdominal - pertaining to the abdomen
cervic/o
neck, cervix uteri (neck of the uterus)
cervical
pertaining to the neck
crani/o
cranium (skull), cranial, pertaining to the cranium
gastr/o
stomach, hypogastric - pertaining to (the area) below the stomach
ili/o
ilium (lateral, flaring portion of hip bond); ili/a - pertaining to the ilium
inguin/o
groin; inguinal - pertaining to the groin
lumb/o
loins (lower back); lumbar - pertaining to the loins (lower back)
pelv/i or pelv/o
pelvis; pelvimeter - instrument
spin/o
spine; spinal-pertaining to the spine
thorac/o
chest; thoracic - pertaining to the chest
umbilic/o
umbilicus, naval; umbilical - pertaining to thenaval
albin/o
white; albinism- condition of whiteness
leuk/o
white; leukocyte - white blood cell
chlor/o
green; chloropira - green vision (disorder in which viewed objects appear green. Associated with a toxic reaction to digitalis)
chrom/o
color; heterochromic-pertaining to different colors (iris or sections of the iris of the eyes-person with heterochromia may have one brown iris and one blue iris)
cirrh/o
yellow; cirrhosis-abnormal yellowing
-osis
abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
jaund/o
yellow -jaundice-yellowing (caused by an abnormal increase of bilirubin - yellow compound when red blood cells are destroyed - in the blooed)
xanth/o
yellow-xanthocyte-yellow cell
-cyte
cell
cyan/o
blye-cyanotic-pertaining to blueness (cyanosis is associated with a lack of oxygen in the blood)
erythr/o
red-erythrocyte-red blood cell
melan/o
black - melanoma - black tumor (melanoma is a malignancy that arises from melanocytes)
poli/o
gray; gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)-poliomyeltitis-inflammationof the gray matter of the spinal cord
myel
bone marrow; spinal cord
acr/o
extremity; acrocyanosis-abnormal condition in which the extremities are blue
eti/o
cause; etiology-study of the causes of disease
idi/o
unknown, peculiar; idiopathic-pertaining to an unknown cause of a disease
morph/o
form, shape, structure; morphology - study of form, shape or structure
path/o
disease; pathologist-specialist in the study of disease (study tissues, cells and body fluids for evidence of disease)
radi/o
radiation, x-ray, radius, lower arm bone on thumb side; radiologist- specialist in the study of radiation
somat/o
body; somatic-pertaining to the body
son/o
sound; sonography=process of recording sound, aka ultrasonography
xer/o
dry; xerosis-abnormal condition of dryness (dryness of the skin, mucous membranes or conjunctiva)
-genesis
forming, producing, origin
pathogenesis
origin of disease
=gnosis
knowing
prognosis
knowing before (prediction of the course and end of a disease and the estimated change of recovery)
-gram
record, writing
arteriogram
record of an artery (an x-ray film of an artery taken after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium)
-metry
act of measuring
ventriculometry
act of measuring the ventricles
(ventricles (heart or brain)
-pathy
disease
gastropathy
disease of the stomach
ab-
from, away from
abduction: act of brining away from (midline of the body)
-duction
act of leading, brining, conducting
adhesion
abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normal separated (may be the result of surgery)
analyte
substance analyzed or tested, generally by means of laboratory methods (in a glucose tolerance test, glucose is the analyte)
contrast medium
substance injected in the body, introduced via catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic images of internal structures that otherwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray films
febrile
feverish, pertaining to a fver
homeostasis
relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body maintained by the process of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes (temperature, acidity, and concentrations of nutrients and wastes remain relatively constant)
inflammation
body defense against injury, infection, or allergy marked by redness, swelling, hart pain and sometimes loss of function
morbid
diseased, pertaining to a disease
nuclear medicine
branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive substances for diagnosis, treatment and research
radiology
branch of medicine concerned with the use of electromagnetic radiation, ultrasound, and imaging techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury
interventional
radiological practice that employs fluoroscopy, CT and ultrasound in nonsurgical treatment of various disorders
therapeutic
use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer, also called radiation oncoloby
radionuclides
substances that emit radiation spontaneously, aka tracers
radiopharmaceutical
radionuclide attached to a protein, sugar or other substance used to visualize an organ or area of the body that will be scanned
scan
term used to describe a computerized image by modality, CT, MRI and nuclear imaging, or by structure, such as thyroid and bone
sepsis
pathological state, usually febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the bloodstream
suppurative
producing or associated with generation of pus
endoscopic
visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope
laparoscopy
Visual examination of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall
thoracoscopy
examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs (usually performed for lung biopsy, repairing perforations in the lungs and diagnosing pleural disease)