Conenzyme that shuttles protons and electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chain
Oxidation-Reduction/ Redox reactions
Chemical processes that always occur together. Each time one substance is oxidized, another is simultaneously reduced.
Mechanisms of ATP generation
The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
Process occurring in the mitochondria that results in the formation of ATP from the flow of electrons across the inner membrane to bind with O2. Part of the electron transport chain
Only in chlorophyll-containing plant cells; , the production of ATP by chemiosmosis during light reactions of photosynthesis
the oxidation of glucose to produce ATP; glycolysis, formation of acetyl coenzyme A, krebs cycle, electron transport chain
-splits 6-carbon glucose into 2 3-carbon molecules on pyruvic acid
-consumes 2 ATP but generates 4
-fate of pyruvic acid depends on O2 availability
Formation of acetyl coenzyme A
-Each pyruvic acid converted into 2-Carbon acetyl group, remove one molecule of CO2 as a waste product
-Each pyruvic acid also loses 2 hydrogen atoms,
NAD+ reduced to NADH2 (NADH + H+)
--Acetyl group attached to conenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)
Occurs in matrix of mitochondria; oxidation-reduction reactions transfer chemical energy,in the form of electrons, to two coenzymes(NAD/FAD); pyruvic acid derivatives are oxidized, and the coenzymes are reduced
Electron transport chain
Series of electron carriers in inner mitochondrial membrane reduced and oxidized; exergnic reactions release energy used to form ATP (chemiosmosis); final electron acceptor is O2 to form water
substances consisting of lipids and protein; transport fat-soluble products (cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins) in the blood
Proteins in outer shell of lipoproteins; each has specific function and are essential transport vehicles.
Lipogenesis- liver cells and adipose cells synthesize lipids from glucose or amino acids
inorganic elements that occur naturally in Earth's crust; helps regulate enymatic reactions