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31 terms

A&P Metabolism and Nutrition

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Metabolism
All chemical reaction occurring in body
Exergonic
Reactions that release energy
Endergonic
Reactions that absorb energy
Catabolism
Breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones; Exergonic
Anabolism
Combining simple molecules into complex ones
ATP
one of the principal chemical compounds that cells use to store and release energy
Oxidation
the loss of electrons
Reduction
Gain of electrons
NAD
a coenzyme present in most living cells and derived from the B vitamin nicotinic acid
FAD
Conenzyme that shuttles protons and electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chain
Oxidation-Reduction/ Redox reactions
Chemical processes that always occur together. Each time one substance is oxidized, another is simultaneously reduced.
Mechanisms of ATP generation
-Substrate-level phosphorylation
-Oxidative phosphorylation
-Photophosphorylation
Substrate-level phosphorylation
The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
Oxidative phosphorylation
Process occurring in the mitochondria that results in the formation of ATP from the flow of electrons across the inner membrane to bind with O2. Part of the electron transport chain
Photophosphorylation
Only in chlorophyll-containing plant cells; , the production of ATP by chemiosmosis during light reactions of photosynthesis
Cellular respiration
the oxidation of glucose to produce ATP; glycolysis, formation of acetyl coenzyme A, krebs cycle, electron transport chain
Glycolysis
-splits 6-carbon glucose into 2 3-carbon molecules on pyruvic acid
-consumes 2 ATP but generates 4
-10 reactions
-fate of pyruvic acid depends on O2 availability
Formation of acetyl coenzyme A
-Each pyruvic acid converted into 2-Carbon acetyl group, remove one molecule of CO2 as a waste product
-Each pyruvic acid also loses 2 hydrogen atoms,
NAD+ reduced to NADH2 (NADH + H+)
--Acetyl group attached to conenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)
Krebs cycle
Occurs in matrix of mitochondria; oxidation-reduction reactions transfer chemical energy,in the form of electrons, to two coenzymes(NAD/FAD); pyruvic acid derivatives are oxidized, and the coenzymes are reduced
Electron transport chain
Series of electron carriers in inner mitochondrial membrane reduced and oxidized; exergnic reactions release energy used to form ATP (chemiosmosis); final electron acceptor is O2 to form water
Glycogenesis
formation of glycogen from glucose
Glycogenolysis
breakdown of glycogen to glucose
Gluconeogenesis
production of glucose from non-carbohydrates; stimulated by cortisol and glucagon
Lipoproteins
substances consisting of lipids and protein; transport fat-soluble products (cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins) in the blood
Apoproteins
Proteins in outer shell of lipoproteins; each has specific function and are essential transport vehicles.
Lipid catabolism
Lipids are hydrolyzed into glycerol and fatty acids
Lipid anabolism
Lipogenesis- liver cells and adipose cells synthesize lipids from glucose or amino acids
Nutrients
substances in food that your body needs to grow, repair itself, and supply with energy
6 types of nutrients
water
carbs
lipids
proteins
minerals
vitamins
Minerals
inorganic elements that occur naturally in Earth's crust; helps regulate enymatic reactions
Vitamins
Organic nutrients required in small amounts to maintain growth and normal metabolism