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All chemical reaction occurring in body


Reactions that release energy


Reactions that absorb energy


Breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones; Exergonic


Combining simple molecules into complex ones


one of the principal chemical compounds that cells use to store and release energy


the loss of electrons


Gain of electrons


a coenzyme present in most living cells and derived from the B vitamin nicotinic acid


Conenzyme that shuttles protons and electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chain

Oxidation-Reduction/ Redox reactions

Chemical processes that always occur together. Each time one substance is oxidized, another is simultaneously reduced.

Mechanisms of ATP generation

-Substrate-level phosphorylation
-Oxidative phosphorylation

Substrate-level phosphorylation

The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.

Oxidative phosphorylation

Process occurring in the mitochondria that results in the formation of ATP from the flow of electrons across the inner membrane to bind with O2. Part of the electron transport chain


Only in chlorophyll-containing plant cells; , the production of ATP by chemiosmosis during light reactions of photosynthesis

Cellular respiration

the oxidation of glucose to produce ATP; glycolysis, formation of acetyl coenzyme A, krebs cycle, electron transport chain


-splits 6-carbon glucose into 2 3-carbon molecules on pyruvic acid
-consumes 2 ATP but generates 4
-10 reactions
-fate of pyruvic acid depends on O2 availability

Formation of acetyl coenzyme A

-Each pyruvic acid converted into 2-Carbon acetyl group, remove one molecule of CO2 as a waste product
-Each pyruvic acid also loses 2 hydrogen atoms,
NAD+ reduced to NADH2 (NADH + H+)
--Acetyl group attached to conenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)

Krebs cycle

Occurs in matrix of mitochondria; oxidation-reduction reactions transfer chemical energy,in the form of electrons, to two coenzymes(NAD/FAD); pyruvic acid derivatives are oxidized, and the coenzymes are reduced

Electron transport chain

Series of electron carriers in inner mitochondrial membrane reduced and oxidized; exergnic reactions release energy used to form ATP (chemiosmosis); final electron acceptor is O2 to form water


formation of glycogen from glucose


breakdown of glycogen to glucose


production of glucose from non-carbohydrates; stimulated by cortisol and glucagon


substances consisting of lipids and protein; transport fat-soluble products (cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins) in the blood


Proteins in outer shell of lipoproteins; each has specific function and are essential transport vehicles.

Lipid catabolism

Lipids are hydrolyzed into glycerol and fatty acids

Lipid anabolism

Lipogenesis- liver cells and adipose cells synthesize lipids from glucose or amino acids


substances in food that your body needs to grow, repair itself, and supply with energy

6 types of nutrients



inorganic elements that occur naturally in Earth's crust; helps regulate enymatic reactions


Organic nutrients required in small amounts to maintain growth and normal metabolism

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