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The average person will absorb no more than ________ mg of calcium at one time.


The majority of the body's magnesium is found in the _______


Which of the following does NOT increase the risk of developing osteoporosis?

moderate alcohol consumption

The thirst mechanism is highly sensitive and responsive to changes in fluid balance, especially as we age.


At what stage in the development of cancer do the cancerous cells grow out of control and invade surrounding tissues?


The animal form of vitamin K produced by bacteria in the large intestine is ________.


The majority of people who develop cancer will die from the disease.


The swelling of tissues associated with hypernatremia is ________.


Research has consistently demonstrated no relationship between high sodium diets and the risk of developing osteoporosis.


Macronutrients are more efficiently absorbed by the body than micronutrients.


Which of the following is NOT a recommended treatment of heat exhaustion?

Place a heating pad in an area of the body where blood circulates close to the surface.

Symptoms of a vitamin C deficiency include ________

bleeding gums and loose teeth

Where does the body store selenium?

in amino acids in the body

Which of the following were once referred to as accessory factors?

vitamins and minerals

Hot and humid environments increase the risk of heat illness because sweat does not evaporate and the body cannot cool itself.


The primary sources of folate in the American diet are ________

enriched ready-to-eat cereals, bread, and grain products

A person suffering from fatigue, muscle wasting, and nerve damage is likely suffering from which of the following deficiency diseases?


Which of the following is NOT a good source of vitamin K?

exposure to sunlight

Females reach their full adult height earlier than males do.


________ is a trace mineral that enhances the ability of insulin to transport glucose into the body's cells.


Ian is hospitalized for dehydration after experiencing severe vomiting and diarrhea. Which of the following is NOT associated with Ian's dehydrated condition?

The extracellular electrolyte concentration will be very low.

The movement of water through a semipermeable membrane toward solutes is called ________


The three active forms of vitamin A in our bodies (retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid) are collectively referred to as the ________.


All antioxidants are water soluble.


Without adequate vitamin K, blood does not clot properly and bleeding problems can develop


Selenium toxicity occurs from an overconsumption of foods rich in this mineral.


Eating whole foods that are high in antioxidants, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, is consistently shown to be associated with a decreased risk of cancer


A light-sensitive pigment found in the rod cells formed by retinal and opsin is ________.


Which of the following increases the RDA for vitamin C?

smoking cigarettes

What is an exchange reaction?

a two-part metabolic reaction that involves a loss and gain of electrons

Which statement is FALSE regarding fat-soluble vitamins?

Fat-soluble vitamins need to be consumed on a daily basis.

As adults age, bone density declines


Trabecular bone has a faster turnover rate than cortical bone.


The most effective treatment for heat stroke is to cool the body and seek immediate medical assistance.


A(n) ________ is a molecule that combines with an enzyme to activate it and help it do its job.


What is the primary role of the B-vitamins?

act as coenzymes

Folate deficiency during pregnancy is associated with

neural tube defects

Vitamin B12 is essential for the proper functioning of


Because the absorption of dietary iron varies greatly, the RDA for iron is not adequate for most people.


Insensible water loss includes water loss ________

through respiration.

Water is known as the universal solvent. This means that ________

most solutes (particles) will dissolve in water.

Which of the following is FALSE about trabecular bone?

comprises approximately 80% of the skeleton

Which of the following is a poor source of dietary magnesium?

refined grain products

A condition characterized by dangerously high potassium levels in the blood is ________.


A fluid loss of greater than ________ percent of body weight can result in organ failure, coma, and death.


In which phase of a woman's life cycle is bone loss the greatest?


Fluids move freely in and out of cells.


Major minerals are those that the body needs more than ________ mg of per day


The calcium in calcium fortified orange juice is well absorbed.


While the rod cells of the retina allow us to see black and white images, the ________ cells are responsible for letting us see in different colors.


Eating too much sodium will result in hypernatremia in most healthy individuals.


Taking vitamin E supplements along with ________ can cause uncontrollable bleeding.


Which of the following nutrients requires the most frequent consumption to assure adequate body stores?

vitamin c

Researchers estimate that ________ of cancer deaths are related to overweight or obesity, poor nutrition, and physical activity.

one third

Vitamins D and ________ are two fat-soluble vitamins humans obtain from non-dietary sources.


In women, the risk of osteoporosis increases with menopause due to the loss of the hormone ________


The human body typically absorbs less than 20% of the iron consumed in the diet.


Approximately half of all cancers are strongly hereditary.


Which of the following will impair iron absorption?

low amounts of stomach acid

A lack of dietary iodine during pregnancy is the primary cause of ________ worldwide.


A goiter can result from ________

too much or too little iodine in the diet

Zinc is a ________ mineral that acts as a cofactor for almost a hundred different enzymens.


Cooking foods high in carotenoids improves their bioavailability.


Hormone replacement therapy has been proven to be a safe and effective treatment for heart disease.


The hormone that assists in maintaining blood calcium levels by stimulating the activation of vitamin D is ________

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

The process called bone ________ determines the shape of bones.


Which of the following stimulates the thirst mechanism?

decreased concentration of solutes in the blood

Hyponatremia is associated with ________

over hydration

Breast milk is a rich source of vitamin D.


A/n ________ is a substance that promotes oxidation and cell damage.


There are no known side effects associated with consuming large amounts of vitamin K from supplements or food.


Fifty percent of Americans with osteoporosis are men.


Which vitamins pose the greats risk of toxicity?

Vitamins A and D

A toxicity of folate can disguise a true deficiency of ________, resulting in nerve damage

vitamin B12

Prothrombin and factor VII are ________

proteins that are involved in the coagulation of blood

Approximately 50 to ________ percent of a healthy body weight is fluid. (Be sure your answer is a numeral.)


Red blood cells called ________ transport oxygen through the body.


Once the DNA of the cell is mutated and the altered cells begin to grow, the development of cancer is inevitable.


Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the mineral selenium?

Selenium is present only in foods of animal origin.

Consuming even moderately excessive doses of vitamin C supplements would be most harmful to individuals suffering from _______


All of the following are signs and symptoms of cancer EXCEPT

unexplained weight gain.

Scurvy is the deficiency disease associated with inadequate vitamin C intake


The majority of dietary chloride is consumed from ________

table salt.

Which of the following individuals is at risk for hyperkalemia?

an individual with kidney disease

Hot and humid environments increase the risk of heat illness because sweat does not evaporate and the body cannot cool itself.


The hormone secreted by the thyroid gland when blood calcium levels are too high is ________.


Guidelines that can prevent heat related deaths in high school and collegiate athletes include all of the following EXCEPT

attendance of a certified athletic trainer at all sporting events.

Since vitamins are found in a wide variety of foods, they are considered non-essential nutrients


Most bottled waters contain fluoride.


Individuals with hypertension should limit their dietary sodium intake to less than 1.5 grams a day.


The most common site of fracture in an individual suffering from osteoporosis is the


Phosphorus consumption has increased approximately 10-15% over the past 30 years. This is largely due to the increased consumption of ________

processed foods.

The only way to obtain adequate calcium and vitamin D is to use supplements.


The point at which our bones are the densest is ________ bone density.


The major electrolyte lost in sweat is ________


Because of a condition known as atrophic gastritis, older adults sometimes need to be given periodic injections of B12 to prevent anemia.


Phylloquinone and menaquinone are better known as

Vitamin K

Processed foods tend to be low in sodium and high in potassium.


Which of the following individuals would be at risk for a vitamin K deficiency?

a 30-year-old with Crohn's disease

Good sources of riboflavin include ________

milk, meats, and green vegetables.

Insufficient intake of iron will FIRST affect the body's ________ levels.


The most common form of cancer in the United States is cancer of the ________


Carotenosis is a serious side effect of consuming too much beta-carotene that can be fatal if untreated


What type of calcium supplement contains the highest amount of calcium per dose?

Calcium carbonate

Vitamin ________ is the most powerful fat-soluble antioxidant. (Be sure to write your answer as a capital letter.)


Research shows that smokers benefit from daily supplements of beta carotene


Of the following ethnic groups, which has the highest risk of developing hypertension?

African American

________ is a trace mineral that enhances the ability of insulin to transport glucose into the body's cells


Which of following does NOT explain why infants are at a higher risk of dehydration compared to adults?

Infants have a lower total body water percentage.

Most of the body's phosphorus is stored in ________

the skeleton

The most powerful and abundant form of vitamin E is ________


The majority of calcium consumed in the diet is absorbed


Even individuals who eat a variety of healthy foods cannot meet their micronutrient needs from food alone and should take a daily supplement.


Most water is lost daily via the ________


Which of the following do sodium and potassium NOT have in common?

Rich sources of both include fresh foods, such as bananas, cantaloupe, and potatoes.

A severe vitamin B12 deficiency results in a condition called ________ anemia


Because the absorption of dietary iron varies greatly, the RDA for iron is not adequate for most people.


A condition that results from the overconsumption of fluoride is ________.


Phylloquinone and menaquinone are better known as ________

vitamin K

Vitamin C is not stored in the body and must be consumed frequently.


Clear to pale colored urine is a good indicator of good hydration status.


Celine visited her doctor to complain about a cut that bled a lot before it clotted. Which of the following deficiencies might cause increased bleeding?

vitamin K

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is associated with the decreased absorption and utilization of _______


Assuming equal serving sizes, which of the following foods would be the poorest source of calcium?

cottage cheese

The ________ is the region of the brain that regulates the sense of thirst.


Vitamin C assists in the synthesis of ________, a protein that is a critical component of all connective tissues in the body


Which of the following is NOT associated with the female athlete triad?


A chemical reaction in which atoms lose electrons is ________.


The deficiency disease associated with vitamin C is ________


Iron absorption is highest when your iron stores and your iron intake are both ________.


Repeated sunburns are associated with an increased risk of developing vitamin D toxicity.


Fat-soluble vitamins should be consumed more frequently than water-soluble vitamins.


Formed in our bones, hydroxyapatite crystals are mineral complexes comprised of calcium and ________


The individual with the highest risk of developing a vitamin D deficiency is a/n ________

elderly institutionalized adult who consumes no milk and receives little or no sun exposure.

Thiamin, consumed in excess, is toxic.


The majority of the vitamin E in our bodies is found in our adipose tissue.


The human body can synthesize which two fat-soluble vitamins?

vitamin D and vitamin K

One of the side effects of using bisphosphonates is ________

abdominal pain.

The chronic overconsumption of ________ can result in a biotin deficiency.

raw egg whites

Which mineral increases insulin's effectiveness in cells?


A vitamin A deficiency can cause night ________, which results in the inability to adjust to dim light and the failure to regain sight quickly after a bright flash of light.


A potentially fatal condition characterized by the failure of the body's heat-regulating mechanisms is heat ________.


The first B-vitamins discovered was ___


Individuals taking diuretics should always increase their dietary potassium intake.


Keshan disease is a heart disorder associated with a(n) ________ deficiency


What is the function of synovial fluid?

lubricates body joints

Which of the following foods contains the lowest amount of sodium?

1 medium fresh orange

Free radicals

are formed by exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoke.

Which of the following are required components of antioxidant enzyme systems?

antioxidant minerals

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