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Comprehensive study cards for the Rehabilitation Counseling Exam

Assistive Technology

any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities

Augmentative and Alternate Communication

A process in which the counselor identifies devices and techniques that the client can use to improve their communication

Durable Medical Equipment

Medicare term for reusable physical supplies such as wheelchairs and hospital beds that are ordered by the provider for use in the home; reported with HPCPS Level II codes.

Philosophical Principles that Define the Client's Role

a) the client must be involved
b) the client must recognize their own beliefs and feelings and how they affect their ability to function
c) the client must be willing to accept help

What is the purpose of anti psychotics?

Used to treat psychiatric conditions by altering the chemistry of the brain

What are the five levels of exertion?

1) Sedentary: less then 6lbs regularly and no more than 10lbs at a time
2) Light: less than 11lbs regularly and no more than 20lbs at a time
3) Medium: 26lbs regularly and no more than 50lbs
4) Heavy: less than 50lbs regularly and no more than 100lbs
5) Very Heavy: 50lbs regularly and more than 100lbs

7 Characteristic of "Universal Design"

1) equitable use
2) flexibility
3) intuitiveness
4) low physical exertion
5) perceptible information
6) size & space
7) tolerance for error

Universal Design

design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptations or specialized design.

Perceptible Information

Principle Universal Design; services or products are made to provide information in a way that anyone can access despite abilities or limitations.

Size & Space

Principle Universal Design; a service or product is designed so anyone can use it, interact with it despite limitations such as grip strength, moving, reaching, etc.

Tolerance for Error

Principle Universal Design; product or service is designed do that user mistakes are hard to make

5 Principles of Ethical Behavior

1) Autonomy
2) Beneficence
3) Non-maleficence
4) Justice
5) Fidelity


independence; self-determination; right to personal choice


intending to do good and act in the best interest of the client


do no harm


actin in a fair an impartial way towards all clients not letting "favorites" or biases influence the service provided


faithfulness to one's promises or obligations; not making insincere statements or impossible promises

Treatment Protocol for Alzheimer's

No cure but exercise, nutrition, physical therapy can help. Need visual monitoring to stay safe and need frequent reminders and queues to reduce anxiety

Huntington's Disease

A genetic disorder that surfaces around age 30 causing anxiety and physical weakness as well as psychiatric and cognitive issues

Muscular Dystrophy

An umbrella term for a degenerative muscle condition


Used to treat clinical depression; typically work on the neurotransmitters serotonin, nor-epinephrine, and/or dopamine

4 Etiologies of Medical Disorders

1) Congenital Defects
2) Degenerative Disorders
3) Acquired Disorders
4) Unknown Origin

Striated Muscle

controls voluntary movement

Smooth Muscle

Control involuntary movement

Cardiac Muscle

Comprises the heart


A Dr with expertise in body mechanics


A Dr who specializes in skeletal disorders


a bodily tissue that connects a muscle to the joint

4 Categories of Rheumatoid Disease

1) Rheumatoid Arthritis
2) Spondylitis
3) Osteoarthritis
4) Osteoporosis

Rheumatoid Arthritis

an autoimmune disease that leads to inflammation of the joints and surrounding tissues


linked to genetics and affects more males than females; causes inflammation of joints between the spinal bones, and joints between spine and pelvis, eventually causes the affected spinal bones to join together.


most common joint disorder, due to aging and "normal" wear and tear on a joint


he thinning of bone tissue and loss of bone density over time

When assessing functional capacity the two major components are...

a) Behavior: the client's past and present actions
b) Level of skill: the difficulty of activities that the client can complete successfully


Principle Universal Design: a product or services provides the same benefit to any user


Principle of Universal Design: a service or product is made to work in any reasonable way


Principle of Universal Design; a product or service is made to be used with little or no training

Low Physical Exertion

Principle of Universal Design: a product or service can be used comfortably, easily and safely

Occupational Therapy

Restore, maintain, or teach skills of daily living and work; Focus on motor skills and mental acuity

Physical Therapy

Restore, maintain and promote overall fitness;
Focus on strength, endurance, and range of motion

Therapeutic Recreation

Improve and maintain overall well-being: physical, mental and emotional; Focus on using leisure/recreational activities to increase/maintain abilities

Speech Therapy

helps people with speech and language problems to speak more clearly.

Vocational Therapy

A special program designed to help those with a physical or mental impairment to obtain, prepare for, engage in, or retain a job. Services are provided through the division of vocational rehabilitation. This program is supported by federal and state funds.

Principles of Treatment Planning

a) Tailor treatment to the specific needs of client
b) Treat ALL factors that affect the overall well-being of the client
c) Ensure that treatment lasts as long as the client needs it
d) Give the client the information needed to create and implement the treatment plan

Functional Capacity

the ability to perform necessary tasks; what a person is actually capable of doing

Functional Assessment Evaluation

(FCE): the assessing of client skills and the performance of certain tasks

3 Types of Environmental Barriers

1) Architectural
2) Service
3) Societal


any technique, strategy, or service that is intended to treat/diminish a specific problem


medical term used to describe a device that helps a person move or supports their body

Philosophical principles that define the counselor's role

a) recognition of and focus on client's strengths
b) recognition and development of client potential
c) working with others to provide necessary services
d) recognition that the client is part of a system (family/community) and that the system may affect the rehabilitation process
e) ensure that the client continues to make progress towards goals

Steps of Strategic Planning

1) identification of goals
2) assessment of counselor ability to meet these goals
3) outlining of specific techniques that can be used to achieve
4) carry out the chosen intervention
5) evaluate progress on a continuous basis

Identified Patient

The family member whose symptoms or behaviors are stated by the family as the reason for coming to therapy.

Third-Party Payment

Payments for healthcare services made by an insurance company or health agency on behalf of the insured

Referral Fee

A fee paid for recommending or referring a potential client or customer


Current Procedural Terminology - a systematic medical listing and coding of procedures and services.

Skills needed to coordinate services

1) communication- ability to transfer information
2) concatenation- ability to ensure the client has access to needed professionals
3) continuity- ability to ensure that all involved are working as a team

3 Types of Accommodation

1) Physical Accommodation- environmental
2) Resource Accommodation- a personal assistant
3) Equipment Accommodation- special tools

Solving Teamwork Problems

a) using conflict resolution techniques as problems arrive
b) re-evaluation and defining of individual team member roles
c) re-evaluation and redesigning of team goals


Piaget learning concept that is acquired between the ages of 7-11 where a child understands that volume, weight, and mass of an object stays the same even when the shape changes

Concrete Operational

The Piagetian stage for when children between the ages of 7-11 understand conservation of matter


Theory of Moral Development: three phases


Kohlberg's first phase: two parts- a child doing what is right to avoid punishment; an older child doing what is right as way to avoid consequences and because it is in the interest of the other

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Pyramid of priority of needs
base to top: physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, self actualization

Pavlovian Methods in the Military

The use of transmarginal inhibition (TMI) techniques are used to re-program solider responses to discomfort of pain, fear

Transmarginal Inhibition

An organism's response to overwhelming stimuli, first detailed by Pavlov

Steps of Work-Hardening

1) assessment of client's functional ability
2) Job analysis to discern the needed skills for employment
3) Identify options for employment
4) identification of specific accommodations, modifications &/or changes that will need to be made

Erik Erikson

Stages of Human Growth & Development: 8 stages that refer to how a person interacts with their environment. Each stage is a "crisis" which needs to be resolved before a person can successfully move to the next stage.


Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: psychological test based in Junian theory; four categories
1) Extroversion - Introversion: Where do you prefer to focus your attention?: Where do you get your energy?
2) Sensing - Intuition: How do you prefer to take in information?
3) Thinking - Feeling: How do you make decisions?
4) Judging - Perceiving: How do you deal with the outer world?

Purpose of Rehabilitation Services Administration

Division of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services; meant to ensure that people with disabilities have access to services needed to function and work and in daily life

Purpose of Office of Special Education Programs

Ensures that children with disabilities have access to an education that is tailored for the specific needs

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families

TANF: helps low income families obtain basic resources

Describe "Insurance"

An organization agrees to cover the costs of the item insured in trade for dues and fees

Purpose of State Workers' Compensation

An insurance program available to employers to cover costs when a worker is hurt on the job

Skills for Job Retention

a) ability to prioritize
b) ability to function under pressure
c) effective communication
d) ability to make decisions
e) ability to problem solve
f) ability to be part of a team

1918 Smith Sears Act

Authorized Federal Board for Vocational Education to organize and offer programs of vocational rehabilitation for veterans with disabilities. Employment as a result of vocational rehabilitation training had to be a feasible possibility.

1920 Smith Fess Act

The civilian vocational rehabilitation [act] program. Counseling, training, prosthetic appliance and job placement to physically disable from industrial injuries. Provided federal funds to states on a 50-50 matching basis.

What year was NRA founded?


1935 Social Security Act

established three types of federal provisions public assistance, social insurance and health/welfare services; also established voc-rehab as a permanent program

1936 Randolph Sheppard Act

joblessness among the blind must be reduced through a robust program to assist blind people in the establishment and operation of cafeteria, concessions, and vending businesses on federal, state, municipal and potentially private property

1938 Wagner O'Day Act

Federal government will purchase items produced in Rehabilitation Workshops

1943 Barden-Lafolette Act

made substantial changes in the federal/state program of rehabilitation; broadened the program's financial provisions, offered a comprehensive definition of vocational rehabilitation, expanded services to include physical restoration, and each state had to submit a written plan for approval by the federal agency as to how federal/state dollars would be used; expansion of services included on a limited basis person who were mentally handicapped and mentally ill; fostered separate agencies for general rehabilitation and rehabilitation of person who were blind.


"The Golden Years"

1954 Amendments-what did they do?

reshaped the roles of the federal and state government in the rehabilitation program; established the basis for a working relationship between public and private rehabilitation and expanded the role of the state agency; established funding sources for (1) college and university training of rehabilitation professionals; (2) improvement and remodeling of rehabilitation facilities; and (3) research and demonstration grants; increased federal funding to states (3 federal dollars for each 2 dollars from the state); increased services to persons with mental retardation and mental illness through items (2) and (3) above, along with agency expansion and improvement grants.

Rehabilitation Act of 1973

Prohibits discrimination of hiring persons with disabilities by federal agencies and federal contractors.

RA of 1973 Section 501

focused on the federal government's hiring practices

RA of 1973 Section 502

created the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (ATBCB) to enforce standards set under the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968

RA of 1973 Section 503

prohibited discrimination in employment on the basis of physical or mental handicap on the part of businesses with federal contract or their subcontractors

RA of 1973 Section 504

prohibited discrimination on the basis of physical and mental handicaps in programs receiving federal funds; also established the Client Assistance Demonstration Projects (CAPS) to provide assistance in informing and advising clients and applicants of all available benefits under the Rehabilitation Act; emphasized priority of services for persons with the most severe handicap and the development of the Individual Written Rehabilitation Plan (IWRP); established by statute the Rehabilitation Services Administration.

1990 Americans with Disabilities Act

requires employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" for people with disabilities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals in employment.

1992 ADA Amendment

stressed respect for ind dignity, personal responsibility, self determination, and pursuit of meaningful careers based on informed choice

1998 ADA Amendment

purpose is to empower ind w/ disabilities to maximize employment, economic self-sufficiency, independence and inclusion and integration into society

2009 ADAAA Amendments

reiterate who is covered by the ADA civil rights protections. It revises the definition of "disability" to more broadly encompass impairments that substantially limit a major life activity. It also states that mitigating measures, including assisstive devices, auxiliary aids, accommodations, medical therapies and supplies (other than eyeglasses and contact lenses) have no bearing in determining whether a disability qualifies under the law. Changes also clarify coverage of impairments that episodic or in remission when active, such as epilepsy or post traumatic stress disorder, that can substantially limit a major life activity. These amendments took effect January 1, 2009.

Family Medical Leave Act

1993; Requires employers with 50 or more workers to grant up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave a year to allow workers to take time off to help care for a new baby or an ill family member without fear of losing their jobs.

Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act

1994. It protects military members for weekend duty, 2-week training periods, short term assignments and war theater assignments

Workforce Investment Act

the federal government's effort to adapt workforce training system to current economic conditions--- provides states with block grant programs that target adult education, disadvantaged youth, and family literacy

The Ticket to Work & Workforce Incentives Improvement Act (TWWIIA)

1999--- increase individual choice in obtaining vocational and employment services; provide increased health care coverage for workers with a disability; and eliminate some of the disincentives to work. The law also created the Medicaid Buy-In program which enables certain individuals to receive Medicaid coverage by paying a premium.

Workers Compensation

A form of insurance paid by the employer providing cash benefits to workers injured or disabled in the course of employment.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) 1996

federal law that requires all health care settings to ensure privacy and security of patient information. Also requires health insurance to be accessible for working Americans and available when changing employment.

Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA)

A 2008 Federal law that prohibits employers from discriminating against applicants or employees on the basis of genetic information gleaned from the individual or family members.

1917 Smith Hughes Act

established the Federal-State Program in vocational education; created a Federal Board of Vocational Education with the authority and responsibility for vocational rehabilitation of disabled veterans.

When was Veterans Bureau established? (VA)


1932 President FDR

tried to keep it a secret that he had polio


Reign of Mary Switzer

4 areas of concern in client-counselor relationship

1) Team approach to treatment planning
2) Monitoring to determine progress of plan
3) Development of realistic, attainable goals
4) Consideration of client resources: $$, transportation, and social support

Duty to Warn

The ethical responsibility to take appropriate action when there is knowledge of impending danger.

Mandatory Ethical Guidelines

Rules that must be followed to avoid personal, legal, or criminal troubles- sex w/ client, conflicts of interest, fees

Aspirational Ethical Guidelines

Moral compulsions to behave in a way that is perceived as moral and proper


support; active pleading on behalf of someone or something


Feelings of intrinsic motivation, in which people perceive their abilities to have impact and meaning and perceive themselves to be competent and capable of self-determination.

Statement of Disclosure

A written document that lets the client know about the procedures and practices of the services they are to receive. Includes: billing, office hours, counselor credentials, and confidentiality procedures

Is it ethical for a counselor to talk about a client with another professional?

Only if the reason for talking to another professional is in the best interest of the client

4 Types of Advocacy Groups

1) single-disability/single-issue
2) single-disability/multi-issue
3) multi-disability/singel-issue
3) multi-disability/multi-issue


Strategic Therapy: developing of a specific strategy to treat a specific problem; use of directives;the therapist takes responsibility for directly influencing clients


Paradoxical intervention: emphasizing of the negative consequences of the new behavior


Paradoxical intervention: characterizing a negative behavior in an even more negative way

Helping a family with a child in the hospital

1) re-evaluate current needs of the family; refer them to additional services if needed
2) ensure the family understands the medical information and treatment protocol

3 goals of Behavioral Group Approach

1) develop social skills
2) teach the skills necessary to function in society
3) help teach the skills necessary to adapt to whatever the situation is

Salvador Minuchin

Structural Family Therapy: uses joining, enactment, boundary making, and mimesis techniques


Structural Family Therapy intervention: therapists attempt at greeting and bonding with family members


Structural Family Therapy intervention: family members are asked to act out the problem situation to bring insight into the family dynamic

Boundary Making

Structural Family Therapy intervention: individual member's roles are defined


Structural Family Therapy intervention: the therapist mimics the positive and negative behavior patterns of individual family members

Advantages of Group Counseling

1) extension of client social support system
2) improved ability to communicate

Positive Group Actions

a) attend to the person speaking
b) no interrupting or distracting behavior
c) encourage each member to voice their thoughts
d) take steps outside group to meet goals

3 leadership styles

1) autocratic (authoritarian)
2) democratic
3) lassies-fare

Autocratic (authoritarian) Leadership

leader forces themselves into group dialog often and is always right

Democratic Leadership

the group and the leader work together to facilitate the group

Laisses-Faire Leadership

the group runs itself according to its own rules

Incongruous Hierarchy

a family relationship in which a minor figure controls the family dynamic.

Socioeconomic Classes

1) upper class
2) upper middle class
3) lower middle class
4) working class
5) working poor
6) poor

Autism Spectrum

A range of mild to more severely debilitating behaviors for which treatment may be necessary

Importance of job analysis for psychiatric disabilities

Identifies the skills a person will need to fulfill a specific position. How much stress a position has is especially important w/ this population


brand name for Olanzapine; anti psychotic used for anxiety, bipolar, PTSD, & schizophrenia

Reality Therapy

developed by Glasser; focus is on the present and felt that people could control life by taking action; stressed the importance of perception

Symptoms of Schizophrenia

auditory &/or visual hallucinations, delusions, paranoia,


when an individual is diagnosed with both a psychiatric disorder and a substance use disorder


Psychedelic "mind manifesting" drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input; alters moods, thoughts, and sense perceptions, including vision, hearing, smell, and touch


opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.

Info in a Treatment Plan

a) client diagnosis & codes
b) major goals for treatment
c) timeline for goal achievement
d) interventions
e) signatures of client and counselor

Stress Management Techniques

a) exercise
b) relaxation- deep breathing, music
c) socialization
d) sleep

Competitive Employment Setting

a work environment in which a person with a disability does the same work and receives the same benefits as a non-disabled peer

Integrated Employment Setting

a person with a disability works alongside people without disabilities

Marketing Rehab Services to an Employer

1) Gather as much info as possible- labor analysis
2) Decide what skills/services to market
3) Develop a plan
3) Develop a strategy- to target appropriate employers

3 Main Types of Accommodation

a) physical
b) resource
c) equipment

Steps of Job Matching

1) Assess client strengths, skills, and limitations
2) Use available tools to find appropriate occupations
3) Use resources to find employers who are hiring
4) Identify relevant job openings

What is the purpose of employer development?

To create a job for a specific client with an employer which isn't actually available.

Structured Development Model

Designed by Delworth & Maki in 1995 expands on the Integrated Development Model by the 8 domains into 2 subgroups a) primary domain group & b) process domain group

What is a null hypothesis?

It exists when the researcher's original hypothesis is incorrect

Operational Definition

The process of describing, setting up, and defining a valid research experiment

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