The greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England during the 18th century.
results of the agricultural revolution
The enclosure method led to two things: first, landowners experimented to discover more productive farming methods to boost crop yield, and second, large landowners forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or give up farming and move to cities.
three factors of production required for industrialization?
land, labor, and capital(wealth).
main cause of the process of urbanization that occurred in 19th century Britain
The factory system
How did landowners and aristocrats view wealthy members of the middle class?
Landowners looked down on those who had made their fortunes in the vulgar business world.
What did Britain do to keep industrial secrets from the United States?
England forbade engineers, mechanics, and toolmakers to leave the country
What was the benefit of being a stockholder in a corporation?
Stockholders are not personally responsible for a corporation's debts, but share in its profits.
What is the laissez-faire policy?
The economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference
What is the name for the voluntary associations of workers seeking labor reforms?
What is an example of a reform movement?
Child labor reforms, abolition of slavery, women's rights.
How did the Agricultural Revolution lead to the Industrial Revolution?
When farming methods improved, food supplies increased, and so did England's population; this led to increased demand for goods. Small farmers lost their land to enclosed farms and became factory workers.
How did Britain's economy affect the process of industrialization?
Britain's economy supported industrialization: overseas trade, economic prosperity, and a climate of pregress contributed to increased demand for goods.
What was the impact of the steam engine on the production of British goods?
They spurred growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport materials and finished products, and created thousands of new jobs.
How did the Industrial Revolution affect cities?
Cities grew tremendously.
What factors contributed to the shorter life span of those living in cities?
Living conditions were dirty and crowded, sickness was widespread.
In what way did the new middle class change British society?
Some of the middle class was as wealthy or wealthier than the upper class.
What was a key idea in the free-market system?
Economic liberty guaranteed economic pregress; government need not interfere in the economy.
What factor played a role in the industrialization of the United States?
Resources and the blockade during the war of 1812, which forced the US to use said resources.
What did William Wilberforce fight for in the 1800s?.
Abolition of slavery
What were the long-term effects of Marx and Engel's The Communist Manifesto?
Marxism inspired revolutionaries such as Russia's Lenin, China's Mao Zedong, and Cuba's Fidel Castro.
flying shuttle; doubled a weaver's output
made world's first railroad line
spinning jenny; allowed one spinner to work 8 threads
water frame; used water power to drive spinning wheels
power loom; run by water power, sped up weaving
invented macadam road paving
hauled 10 tons of iron over 10 miles in a steam locomotive
made steam engine faster and more efficient
spinning mule; combo of spinning jenny and water frame