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58 terms

Biology Chapt 1 review for final

STUDY
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anatomy
studies the human body using imaging and cadavers
physiology
studying how a body part works, function
gross or macroscopic anatomy
the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye
regional anatomy
studying all of the structures in a particular area of the body
systemic anatomy
studying the body system by system
surface anatomy
the study of the internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface
microscopic anaotmy
the study of structures too small to be seen with the naked eye
cytology
the study of cells
histology
the study of tissues
developmental anatomy
the study of structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span
embryology
the study of developmental changes that occur before birth
maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction,growth
What are the 8 survival needs of the body?
nutrients, oxygen water, appropriate temperature, and atmospheric presure
What are the 5 survival needs of the human body?
homeostasis
What is the ability of the body to maintain a relatively stable internal condition?
negative feedback mechanism
heart rate, blood pressure breathing, and o2 levels, carbon dioxide and mineral levels
positive feedback mechanism
blood clotting, and labor
inferior
away from the head
superior
toward the head
ventral or anterior
toward or at the front of the body
dorsal or posterior
toward or at the back of the body
medial
toward the midline of the body
lateral
away from the midline of the body
intermediate
between a more medial and a more lateral structure
proximal
closer to the origin of the body part
distal
away from the origin of a body part
superficial
toward or at the body surface
deep
away form the body surface
anatomical position
the body is errect with feet slightly apart. palms face forward and the thumbs point away from the body.
directional terms
how we explain where one body structure is in relatoin to another
axial part
head, neck, and trunk
appendicular part
limbs
sagittal plane
a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts.
midsgittal plane
a sagittal plane that divides the body right down the center
parasagittal planes
a plane that divides the body offset from the midline
frontal plane
a plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
coronal plane
a plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
transverse plane
runs horizontally from right to left, divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
dorsal body cavity
protects the fragile nervous system organs
cranail cavity
encases the brain
spinal cavity
runs within the bony vertebral colum and encloses the delicate spinal cord
oblique sections
cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and vertical planes
thoracic body cavity
surrounded by the ribs and muscles of the chest
parietal serosa
membrane lining the cavity walls
visceral serosa
covering the organs
epigastric region
superior to the umbilical region
hypogastric region
inferior to the umbilical region
right and left iliac
lateral to the hypogastric region
right and left hypochondriac region
lateral to the epigastric region
c) chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal
The correct sequence of levels forming the structural hierarchy is
a) organ, organ system, cellular, chemical, tissue, organismal
b)chemical, cellular, tissue, organismal, organ, organ system
c)chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal
d) organismal, organ system, organ, tissue, cellular, chemical
a) a cell
The structural and functional unit of life is
a) a cell
b) an organ
c) an organism
d) a molecule
e) all of these
Which of the following is a major functional characteristic of all organisms?
a)movement
b)growth
c) metabolism
d)responsiveness
e)all of these
a)nervous system and d) endocrine system
Two of these organ systems bear the major responsibility for ensuring homestasis of the internal environment. Which two?
a) nervous system
b)digestive system
c)cardiovascular system
d)endocrine system
e)reproductive system
the wrist, the hip bone, the nose, the toes, and the scalp
In a directional term is followed by terms indicating different body structures or locations. In each case, choose the structure or organ that matches the given directional term
a)distal: the elbow/the wrist
b)lateral: the hip bone/ the umbilicus
c) superior: the nose/the chin
d)anterior: the toes the heel
3) superficial: the scalp the skull
neither c or d would be visible
Assume that the body has been sectioned along three planes: 1 a median plane 2 a frontal plane and 3 a transverse plane made at the level of each of the organs listed below. which organs would not be visible in all three cases?
a)urinary bladder
b) brain
c) lungs
d) kidneys
e) small intestines
f) heart
dorsal, ventral, dorsal, ventral
Relate each of the following conditions or statements to either the dorsal body cavity or the ventral body cavity.
a) surrounded by the bony skull and the vertebral column
b) includes the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
c) contains the brain and spinal cord
d) contains the hear, lungs and digestive organs
b) parietal pericardium/ outer surface of heart
Which of the following relationships is incorrect?
a) visceral peritoneum/ outer surface of small intestine
b) parietal pericardium/ outer surface of heart
c) parietal pleura/ wall of thoracic cavity
b)abdominal cavity
Which ventral cavity subdivision has no bony protection?
a) thoracic cavity
b)abdominal cavity
c) pelvic cavity
c) posterior; dorsal
Terms that apply to the backside of the body in the anatomical position include:
a)ventral;anterior
b)back;rear
c)posterior;dorsal
d)medial;lateral