How do particles of unlike charge react to each other?
How do neutral particles react to other particles that are electrically charged?
Not attracted or repelled.
Complete the statement: If a neutral atom had 6 protons it would by reason have _____ electrons.
6, the same number of electrons as protons.
What specifically does the atomic number indicate about the structure of an atom of an element?
The exact number of protons in the atom.
Distinguish between atomic number and atomic mass number. Use deuterium and tritium as examples.
Atomic number - Number of protons in atom. Atomic mass number - Number of protons and number of neutrons in an atom. Example: Deuterium atomic #1 & atomic mass #2 is one proton and one neutron.
Atoms of an element that have different atomic mass numbers.
How specifically does the structure of atoms of two isotopes of the same element compare? Why is their atomic number the same? Why is their atomic mass number different?
Same number of protons, different number of neutrons. Same number of protons in each isotope of same element. Different number of neutrons.
Compare the bonding properties of two isotopes of the same element.
Same, because isotopes have the same electron patterns.
Complete the statement: The ___ is the average atomic mass of the relative percentage of all the isotopes of one element.
What specifically do radioisotopes release that more stable isotopes do not?
Radiation in the form of alpha/beta particles or gamma radiation.
When atoms are struck by ionizing radiation which subatomic particles are usually dislodged?
How are radioisotopes useful in diagnosing and treating disease?
Act as traceable markers when introduced to the body and can deliver radiation to specific sites within body.
Two or more atoms chemically bonded together.
Define/describe compound. Give an example of molecules that are compounds and molecules that are not compounds.
A molecule containing at least 2 different elements. Compound examples: H2O, CO2, NaCl. Non-compound examples: H2, O2, N2.
Distinguish between reactants and products in a chemical equation.
Reactants are the "before" and products are the "after" of a chemical reaction; products are made from and replace the reactants.
What are the molecular formulas for water, molecular hydrogen, atmospheric oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide, and sodium chloride?
H2O, H2, O2, CH4, CO2, NaCl
Define/describe electron shell.
The orbit of an electron, the energy level the electron occupies.
Which electron shell is most likely to be directly involved in forming chemical bonds?
Outermost because these outer level electrons are not tightly held by the nucleus' positive charge.
Which region of an atom is most directly involved in forming chemical bonds?
The outer electron orbits.
Describe the "rule of eights" and why it does not apply to the innermost shell.
The outermost shell of an atom is relatively stable if it has a total of 8 electrons; the first shell can only hold a maximum of 2 electrons but this is stable if it is the outermost shell as in helium.
Define/describe ion, anion and cation.
Ion - Atom or molecule with an overall electric charge. Anion - Negatively charged ion. Cation - Positively charged ion.
What type of bond is common in "salts"?
Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic bond - Relatively weak attraction between anions and cations within a molecule. Covalent bond - Relatively strong bond between atoms that share outer level electrons within a molecule.
Distinguish between polar and nonpolar molecules. Which type has ionic characteristics?
Nonpolar - Electric charges are evenly distributed across the entire neutral molecule. Polar - Electric charges are not evenly distributed across the entire neutral molecule and thus charged zones appear and act "ionic".
Where are intramolecular bonds located?
Within one molecule between branches of the structure.
Distinguish between synthesis, decomposition, and exchange reactions. Which type represents anabolism? Catabolism? Growth? Digestion?
Synthesis - Creating a new larger molecule as with anabolism & growth. Decomposition - Breaking down a larger molecule into smaller components as with catabolism & digestion. Exchange - Switching pieces between two molecules to create two different molecules as with acid/base neutralization.
Complete the statement: In a chemical equation double arrows between the reactants and products indicates that the reaction is ___.
What is the most common difference between inorganic and organic compounds? Identify 2 obvious exceptions to this common distinction.
How do temperature, particle concentration and particle size affect the rate of chemical reactions?
Higher temperature, greater particle concentration and smaller particle size often increase the rate of a chemical reaction.
Identify the most abundant inorganic compound in the human body.
Define/describe "high heat capacity". Explain how this characteristic of water helps to stabilize metabolism.
Ability to absorb or release large amount of heat without dramatically changing temperature creates consistent internal environment.
Distinguish between solution, solvent, and solute. Use saltwater as an example and identify each component.
Solution - Mixture of solvent & solutes. Solvent - Larger component of solution. Solutes - Smaller components than solvent. Example: Saltwater is a solution with water as the solvent & salt as the solute.
Compare the solute particle size in solutions, colloids, and suspensions.
Using the pH scale offer representative numbers for the following: saliva, blood, semen.
Saliva: pH 6 Blood: pH 7.4 Semen: pH 7.4
Identify the 3 most common elements in carbohydrates.
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.
What is the molecular formula for glucose?
Identify 5 common monosaccharides. Which one is considered the "universal cellular fuel"?
Glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose; Glucose is the "universal cell fuel".
Distinguish between dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.
Dehydration synthesis - Creates a larger molecule from two or more smaller molecules by removing H & OH from the smaller molecules to open binding sites, water (H2O) is created in the process. Hydrolysis - Creates two or more smaller molecules from a larger molecule by breaking bonds within the larger molecule and "patching" the exposed bonds with H & OH, water is destroyed (dismantled) in the process.
Identify 3 common disaccharides and their "monosaccharide" components.
Distinguish between DNA and RNA by general structure, function, and location within a cell.
DNA - Double helix, contains deoxyribose sugar, stores genetic information, mainly found in nucleus. RNA - Single strand, contains ribose sugar, delivers & uses genetic information, found in nucleus & cytoplasm (mainly ribosomes).
Which nucleic acid is a double helix? Contains genes? Commonly moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm? May be described as "messenger"? May be described as "ribosomal"? May be described as "transfer"? Is basically disposable within the cytoplasm after being used?
DNA - Double helix, contains genes. RNA - Moves from nucleus to cytoplasm, may be "messenger", may be "ribosomal", may be "transfer", is basically disposable.
Which molecule represents the most usable form of chemical energy within the cell?
What do the abbreviations "ATP" and "ADP" specifically stand for?
ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate ADP = Adenosine Diphosphate
What is the main structural difference between ADP and ATP?
ADP has 2 attached phophate groups; ATP has 3 attached phophate groups which includes an extra high energy storing chemical bond.