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76 terms

Rise of Christianity, Fall of Rome

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Pharisees
Very strict to Jewish Law and more spiritual; desired freedom but not violence
Sadducees
Strict and more political; desired cooperation with Romans
Essenes
Ultra strict & withdrawn; awaited Messiah for liberation
Zealots
Strict & militantly against Rome; desired violent overthrow of Rome
Pontius Pilate
Roman procurator of Judea who ordered that Jesus be crucified
"Client kingdom"
A relationship between two places where one more powerful state helps a smaller, less able state. For example, Rome supplied Judea with important things and Judea offered military assistance in return.
Paul
A Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in Anatolia, he initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but, after receiving a revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus, became a Christian., a religious leader who preached to gentiles as well as Jews and helped to establish and strengthen the Christian religion
Peter
One of the 12 disciples of Jesus; the first Pope, bishop of Rome
Bishops
beginning of church hierarchy; officials of the church
Presbyters
beginning of church hierarchy; elders of the church
410 AD
-Alaric and the Visigoths sack Rome
-troops out of Britain
-Augustine "City of God"
St. Patrick
Father of Christianity in Ireland; kidnapped as a young man, was held captive in Ireland. After his release, he became a monk and chose to return to Ireland in order to convert the people to Christianity
Tetrarchy
rule by four; the system of government established by Diocletian in which the Roman Empire was divided into two parts, each ruled by an Augustus assisted by a Caesar

2 Augusti - 2 Caesars - 4 prefectures - 12 dioceses - 100 provinces
Augustine
-pagan dad, Christian mom
-rhetoric
-"City of God"- separation of church and city
-"Confessions"- first 33 years of his life
-Bishop of Hippo
301 Edict
Established maximum wages and prices
Council of Nicea
325 AD; Largest church council to date (220 bishops) meets in imperial palace to bring unity to the church over:
-Divinity of Christ (against the Arian heresy)
-Begins Church and State unification
Nicene Creed
Jesus of "one substance" with Father
Edict of Milan
315 AD; Christianity tolerated! But NOT LEGALIZED
-Christians suddenly given favored positions/privileges
Battle of Milvian Bridge
312 AD; the location where Constantine converts to Christianity
Vulgate
First Latin translation of the Bible
Anthony of Egypt
"Father of Monasticism"; first "monk"
Constantine
Finally reunifies empire again
-Regimentation of Society
-Instituted a new building program
*Rome - baths, Arch of (name)
*Established a new capitol in ______ople = new beginning
Ambrose of Milan
Leads Augustine to Christ; first spiritual leader to successfully coerce state ruler to obey; first to use "hymn singing" in worship; fought against heresy
Jerome
Made the first Latin translation of the Bible (Vulgate)
Emperor Honorius
Removes troops from Britain
Gaiseric
Leader of the Vandals
Alaric
Leader of the Visigoths
Diocletian and Constantine (political reforms)
-Emperors gain more personal power
-Emperor presides over civil and military hierarchies
-Senate stripped of any remaining power
-Emperors paid homage by gov. officials
Diocletian and Constantine (military reforms)
-military and civil bureaucracies were sharply separated
-army enlarged to 400,000 men
-new structure given to military
*garrison troops were placed on frontiers as first-line defenses
*mobile units located behind frontiers allowed for reinforcements; created more flexibility
*German units (federates) added
Diocletian and Constantine (social/economic reforms)
-based on coercion (force) and loss of freedom
-regimentation of society
*Edicts issued to forced curiales to pay expenses when tax collections fall short; became a hereditary position
*Edicts forced laborers to remain in their vocations; forced laborers into servitude
*upper classes either exempt or evade taxes=lower classes carry a higher tax burden
70 AD
Jerusalem is burned to the ground
Pentecost
infused with the Holy Spirit; originally a Jewish holiday
Papal State
Pope should:
*Provide for defense against Lombards
*Establish government for Rome
*Feed the people
*Support missionaries to England and Germanics
monk
separated from society to pursue the ideal of godliness and total dedication to the will of God; replaced the external martyrdom of persecution with the internal martyrdom of dying to oneself and the world
monasticism
New Christian ideal based on monk who died to the world and achieved spiritual life through denial, asceticism and mystical experience of God
Saint Benedict of Nursia
founded monastic house and wrote rules for monastery
Benedictine Rules
1. Ideal of moderation, poverty, chastity, and obedience
2. Prayer: seven times a day as a community; private meditation and reading (matins - gathering at midnight for prayers)
3. Physical labor, providing needs of the monastary
4. Monks ate, slept, and worshiped together
abbot
"father" of monastery; complete authority
abbes
Head of the women's cloister (nuns) - appealed to intellectual women
nun
a woman who has taken a sacred vow to devote her life to prayer and service to the church
federates
German military units
"City of God"
Augustine of Hippo's idea on separation of church and state; adds Christian view to Plato's Divided Line Theory
Odoacer
Germanic Masters of the Soldiers; deposes the Roman emperor and proclaims himself as king, "obedient" to the eastern emperor, Zeno, in Constantinople
Justin Martyr
2nd century, age of the apologist; born in Flavia, Neopolus; received education in philosophy; called himself the Stoic; 130 ad converted; taught/defended Christianity in Asia minor and Rome; martyred in Rome, beheaded for refusal to sacrifice to gods and obey Emperor
Tertullian
De Anima of the soul; age of the apologist; born in Carthage; received typical education for time period; practiced law; first major Christian author to write in Latin; expressed rejection of philosophy "what has Athens to do with Jerusalem"; major writings-"Apology", "Against Marcion", "Against Prakeas"
Theodosius
Roman emperor, Christianity was made the official religion of the empire
Nero/Decius/Diocletian
Christians were enemies of the state; requires all citizens to have certificate of proof of sacrifice to imperial cult; Christians torture until they confess "Caesar is Lord", those who refuse become martyred; Christians identified as separate and suspicious group
Gregory I
most important pope of the early middle ages; as a result of his numerous writings, he is considered the last of the fathers of the church; invented the papal states; he was successful in converting the pagan peoples of Germanic Europe using the monastic movement
Pope Leo I
5th century, portrayed himself as the heir of Peter; Petrine Supremacy (Doctrine)-based on Matt 16:15-19 "on this rock I will build my church"; Peter considered the chief apostle and first bishop of Rome; Bishops of Rome hold a prominent/preeminent position-Pope "papa"
Irenaeus
2nd century; wrote "Against Heresies" by elevating Bishop of Rome on Apostolic Succession and Petrine Theories (prepares for Roman Catholic Church)
Ignatius of Antioch
2nd century; Catholic (universal) Church; with churches under single biships; model martyr on his "death march" to Rome; believed that should treat the bishop as god
Antonius Pius
2nd century; very religious; benevolent; philosophy; 1 of 5 good emperors; most beneficent
Stephen
one of 7 men chosen from Hellenistics to see that no widows were neglected in the daily distribution of food; the Jews brought false witnesses against him, falsely accusing him of blasphemy; the first martyr for Christians and was stoned
diocese
an area under jurisdiction of Christian bishop; based originally on Roman administrative districts
vicar
an official that headed diocese
prefectures
12 diocese were grouped into 4 of these
"Germans"
all the peoples to the north of the rivers; uncivilized barbarians
"Augustus"
headed two prefectures, and was assisted by "vice- emperor", or chief lieutenant
"Caesar"
chief lieutenant, or "vice-emperor", who assisted the other head of the prefecture, theoretically would succeed the 'other prefecture head'.
Visigoths
one of the groups displaced by the huns; asked the Roman emperor to cross the Danube and farm in return for providing German troops for the Roman military; Alaric was leader
Huns
a fierce tribe of Nomads from the steeps of Asia; moved into Black Sea region
Antioch
the trade center for food and materials; early center of Christianity; Peter and Paul preached there; followers of Jesus were first called Christians there
Nicomedia
Diocletian made the city the capitol of the Eastern part of the empire
Eucharist
Lord's supper; the communal celebration of Jesus' last supper; early Christian groups met in private homes in the evening to share a common meal called agape or the love feast and to celebrate what became known as the Lord's supper or sacrament of this.
Pope Gelasius
wrote to Constantinople emperor; there were 2 ruling powers; spiritual and temporal with different functions; church is ultimately the higher authority because all men, (and emperors) rely on the church "for the means...of salvation"
Master of the Soldiers
Germanic ppls were in the midst of creating independent kingdoms, but the real power was in the hands of (them), important military officials; controlled the government and dominated imperial court
Neoplatonism
revival of Platonic thought; pinnacle of 3rd century; one can use reason to perceive one link between the invisible spiritual world and visible material world; christian theologians used (term) concepts to explain doctrines on Jesus, esp. the distinction between human and physical features
Petrine Supremacy
grounded in Scripture; based on belief that bishops of Rome occupied a pre-eminent position in the church; bishop of Rome=pope
Saint Boniface
undertook the conversion of pagan Germans; "apostle of the Germans"; most famous church man in Europe; killed trying to convert the Frisians; brilliant example of numerous English and Irish monks whose tireless efforts made Europe the bastion of the Roman Catholic faith
Vandals
leader was Gaiseric; moved through Gal and Spain and seized Carthage; sacked Rome when Rome broke a treaty that they made with Gaiseric.
heresy
teaching different from official "catholic" or universal beliefs of the church; is Jesus' nature divine or human; doctrinal differences became political issues creating factions that actually warred with one another.
deacon
a cleric ranking just below a priest in Christian churches
301 AD
Edict regaurding wages/prices
313 AD
Edict of Milan
325 AD
Council of Nicea
476 AD
ceremonial fall of Rome