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Very strict to Jewish Law and more spiritual; desired freedom but not violence


Strict and more political; desired cooperation with Romans


Ultra strict & withdrawn; awaited Messiah for liberation


Strict & militantly against Rome; desired violent overthrow of Rome

Pontius Pilate

Roman procurator of Judea who ordered that Jesus be crucified

"Client kingdom"

A relationship between two places where one more powerful state helps a smaller, less able state. For example, Rome supplied Judea with important things and Judea offered military assistance in return.


A Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in Anatolia, he initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but, after receiving a revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus, became a Christian., a religious leader who preached to gentiles as well as Jews and helped to establish and strengthen the Christian religion


One of the 12 disciples of Jesus; the first Pope, bishop of Rome


beginning of church hierarchy; officials of the church


beginning of church hierarchy; elders of the church

410 AD

-Alaric and the Visigoths sack Rome
-troops out of Britain
-Augustine "City of God"

St. Patrick

Father of Christianity in Ireland; kidnapped as a young man, was held captive in Ireland. After his release, he became a monk and chose to return to Ireland in order to convert the people to Christianity


rule by four; the system of government established by Diocletian in which the Roman Empire was divided into two parts, each ruled by an Augustus assisted by a Caesar

2 Augusti - 2 Caesars - 4 prefectures - 12 dioceses - 100 provinces


-pagan dad, Christian mom
-"City of God"- separation of church and city
-"Confessions"- first 33 years of his life
-Bishop of Hippo

301 Edict

Established maximum wages and prices

Council of Nicea

325 AD; Largest church council to date (220 bishops) meets in imperial palace to bring unity to the church over:
-Divinity of Christ (against the Arian heresy)
-Begins Church and State unification

Nicene Creed

Jesus of "one substance" with Father

Edict of Milan

315 AD; Christianity tolerated! But NOT LEGALIZED
-Christians suddenly given favored positions/privileges

Battle of Milvian Bridge

312 AD; the location where Constantine converts to Christianity


First Latin translation of the Bible

Anthony of Egypt

"Father of Monasticism"; first "monk"


Finally reunifies empire again
-Regimentation of Society
-Instituted a new building program
*Rome - baths, Arch of (name)
*Established a new capitol in ______ople = new beginning

Ambrose of Milan

Leads Augustine to Christ; first spiritual leader to successfully coerce state ruler to obey; first to use "hymn singing" in worship; fought against heresy


Made the first Latin translation of the Bible (Vulgate)

Emperor Honorius

Removes troops from Britain


Leader of the Vandals


Leader of the Visigoths

Diocletian and Constantine (political reforms)

-Emperors gain more personal power
-Emperor presides over civil and military hierarchies
-Senate stripped of any remaining power
-Emperors paid homage by gov. officials

Diocletian and Constantine (military reforms)

-military and civil bureaucracies were sharply separated
-army enlarged to 400,000 men
-new structure given to military
*garrison troops were placed on frontiers as first-line defenses
*mobile units located behind frontiers allowed for reinforcements; created more flexibility
*German units (federates) added

Diocletian and Constantine (social/economic reforms)

-based on coercion (force) and loss of freedom
-regimentation of society
*Edicts issued to forced curiales to pay expenses when tax collections fall short; became a hereditary position
*Edicts forced laborers to remain in their vocations; forced laborers into servitude
*upper classes either exempt or evade taxes=lower classes carry a higher tax burden

70 AD

Jerusalem is burned to the ground


infused with the Holy Spirit; originally a Jewish holiday

Papal State

Pope should:
*Provide for defense against Lombards
*Establish government for Rome
*Feed the people
*Support missionaries to England and Germanics


separated from society to pursue the ideal of godliness and total dedication to the will of God; replaced the external martyrdom of persecution with the internal martyrdom of dying to oneself and the world


New Christian ideal based on monk who died to the world and achieved spiritual life through denial, asceticism and mystical experience of God

Saint Benedict of Nursia

founded monastic house and wrote rules for monastery

Benedictine Rules

1. Ideal of moderation, poverty, chastity, and obedience
2. Prayer: seven times a day as a community; private meditation and reading (matins - gathering at midnight for prayers)
3. Physical labor, providing needs of the monastary
4. Monks ate, slept, and worshiped together


"father" of monastery; complete authority


Head of the women's cloister (nuns) - appealed to intellectual women


a woman who has taken a sacred vow to devote her life to prayer and service to the church


German military units

"City of God"

Augustine of Hippo's idea on separation of church and state; adds Christian view to Plato's Divided Line Theory


Germanic Masters of the Soldiers; deposes the Roman emperor and proclaims himself as king, "obedient" to the eastern emperor, Zeno, in Constantinople

Justin Martyr

2nd century, age of the apologist; born in Flavia, Neopolus; received education in philosophy; called himself the Stoic; 130 ad converted; taught/defended Christianity in Asia minor and Rome; martyred in Rome, beheaded for refusal to sacrifice to gods and obey Emperor


De Anima of the soul; age of the apologist; born in Carthage; received typical education for time period; practiced law; first major Christian author to write in Latin; expressed rejection of philosophy "what has Athens to do with Jerusalem"; major writings-"Apology", "Against Marcion", "Against Prakeas"


Roman emperor, Christianity was made the official religion of the empire


Christians were enemies of the state; requires all citizens to have certificate of proof of sacrifice to imperial cult; Christians torture until they confess "Caesar is Lord", those who refuse become martyred; Christians identified as separate and suspicious group

Gregory I

most important pope of the early middle ages; as a result of his numerous writings, he is considered the last of the fathers of the church; invented the papal states; he was successful in converting the pagan peoples of Germanic Europe using the monastic movement

Pope Leo I

5th century, portrayed himself as the heir of Peter; Petrine Supremacy (Doctrine)-based on Matt 16:15-19 "on this rock I will build my church"; Peter considered the chief apostle and first bishop of Rome; Bishops of Rome hold a prominent/preeminent position-Pope "papa"


2nd century; wrote "Against Heresies" by elevating Bishop of Rome on Apostolic Succession and Petrine Theories (prepares for Roman Catholic Church)

Ignatius of Antioch

2nd century; Catholic (universal) Church; with churches under single biships; model martyr on his "death march" to Rome; believed that should treat the bishop as god

Antonius Pius

2nd century; very religious; benevolent; philosophy; 1 of 5 good emperors; most beneficent


one of 7 men chosen from Hellenistics to see that no widows were neglected in the daily distribution of food; the Jews brought false witnesses against him, falsely accusing him of blasphemy; the first martyr for Christians and was stoned


an area under jurisdiction of Christian bishop; based originally on Roman administrative districts


an official that headed diocese


12 diocese were grouped into 4 of these


all the peoples to the north of the rivers; uncivilized barbarians


headed two prefectures, and was assisted by "vice- emperor", or chief lieutenant


chief lieutenant, or "vice-emperor", who assisted the other head of the prefecture, theoretically would succeed the 'other prefecture head'.


one of the groups displaced by the huns; asked the Roman emperor to cross the Danube and farm in return for providing German troops for the Roman military; Alaric was leader


a fierce tribe of Nomads from the steeps of Asia; moved into Black Sea region


the trade center for food and materials; early center of Christianity; Peter and Paul preached there; followers of Jesus were first called Christians there


Diocletian made the city the capitol of the Eastern part of the empire


Lord's supper; the communal celebration of Jesus' last supper; early Christian groups met in private homes in the evening to share a common meal called agape or the love feast and to celebrate what became known as the Lord's supper or sacrament of this.

Pope Gelasius

wrote to Constantinople emperor; there were 2 ruling powers; spiritual and temporal with different functions; church is ultimately the higher authority because all men, (and emperors) rely on the church "for the means...of salvation"

Master of the Soldiers

Germanic ppls were in the midst of creating independent kingdoms, but the real power was in the hands of (them), important military officials; controlled the government and dominated imperial court


revival of Platonic thought; pinnacle of 3rd century; one can use reason to perceive one link between the invisible spiritual world and visible material world; christian theologians used (term) concepts to explain doctrines on Jesus, esp. the distinction between human and physical features

Petrine Supremacy

grounded in Scripture; based on belief that bishops of Rome occupied a pre-eminent position in the church; bishop of Rome=pope

Saint Boniface

undertook the conversion of pagan Germans; "apostle of the Germans"; most famous church man in Europe; killed trying to convert the Frisians; brilliant example of numerous English and Irish monks whose tireless efforts made Europe the bastion of the Roman Catholic faith


leader was Gaiseric; moved through Gal and Spain and seized Carthage; sacked Rome when Rome broke a treaty that they made with Gaiseric.


teaching different from official "catholic" or universal beliefs of the church; is Jesus' nature divine or human; doctrinal differences became political issues creating factions that actually warred with one another.


a cleric ranking just below a priest in Christian churches

301 AD

Edict regaurding wages/prices

313 AD

Edict of Milan

325 AD

Council of Nicea

476 AD

ceremonial fall of Rome

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