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AP World History key concepts unit 3

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How did trade networks in the post-classical era compare to the classical era?
widening of old and new networks of human interaction within and across regions, innovations in transportation, state policies and mercantile practices contributed to the expansion and development of commercial networks, which in turn served as conduits for cultural, technological, and biological diffusion in societies.
What new technologies, governmental policies, and merchant activities accompanied these developments?
improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly-active trade networks.
What role did pastoral and nomadic groups play in these trade networks?
pastoral and nomadic groups helped create and sustain these networks an example would be the Mongols
How did the physical size of post-classical trade networks compare to the previous era?
expanding networks fostered greater inter-regional borrowing while at the same time sustaining regional diversity. Expansion of existing empires facilitated trans-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors' economies and trade networks
What classical era trade networks continued during the post-classical era, and which new cities were added during the post-classical era?
Existing trade routes flourished including the Silk Roads, the Mediterranean Sea, trans-Saharan and the Indian Ocean, and promoted the growth of powerful new trading cities. ex. Novgorod, TImbuktu, Swahili city-states, Hangzhou, Calicut, Baghdad, Melaka, Venice, Tenochtitlan, Cahokia.
What new trade networks developed?
trade routes between mesoamerica and the Andes developed also trade routes over the Indian Ocean and over the Sahara
What new technologies enabled the growth of inter-regional trade networks
growth of inter-regional trade in luxury goods, encouraged by significant innovations in previously-existing transportation and commercial technologies, including more sophisticated caravan organization, use of compass, astrolabe, and larger ship designs in sea travel and new forms of credit and monetization ex. bills of exchange, credit, checks or banking houses.
What factors encouraged commercial growth in the post classical era?
commercial growth was also facilitate by state practices, trading organizations, and state sposored commercial infrastructures
How did the expansion of empires and trade networks affect the relationship between peoples inside versus outside those "zones?"
expansion of existing empires facilitated trans-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors' economies
What were the effects of migration
the movement of peoples caused environmental and linguistic effects
What basic understanding of environment and technology did post classical traders need to conduct their business
expansion and intensification of long-distance trade routes often depended on peoples' understanding of a particular regional environment and their subsequent technological adaptations
1. Scandinavian vikings used their longboats to travel in coastal and open water as well as rivers and estuaries
2. Arabs and Berbers adapted camels to travel across and around the Sahara
3. Central Asian pastoral groups used horses to travel in the steppes
What were the environmental effects of migration
migration of the agricultural Bantu-speaking peoples who facilitated transmission of iron technologies in Sub-Saharan Africa, maritime migrations of the Polynesian peoples who cultivated transplanted foods and domesticated animals as they moved to new islands
What were the linguistic effects of migration in the post-classical era?
migrations and commercial contacts led to the diffusion of languages throughout a new region or the emergence of new languages
How did trade networks as a whole develop in the post classical era?
cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing or the creation of new networks of trade and communication
Why and where did Muslim trade networks change?
Islam developed in the Arabian Peninsula from the interactions among Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians with the local peoples and expanded to many parts of Afro-Eurasia due to military expansion and the activities of merchants and missionaries
What institutions did merchants create to foster both trade and cultural diffusion in the post-classical era?
merchants set up diaspora communities where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture
1. Muslims merchant communities in the Indian Ocean region
2. Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia
3. Sogdian merchant communities throughout Central Asia
4. Jewish communities in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean basin, or along the Silk Roads
How well did post-classical societies know and understand each other?
writings of certain inter-regional travelers illustrate both the extent and the limitations of inter-cultural knowledge and understanding.
How did post-classical trade affect the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions?
increased cross-cultural interactions resulted in the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions
1. the influence of Neo-Confucianism and Buddhism in East Asia, Hinduism, and Buddhism in SE Asia
2. the influence of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia
3. influence of Toltec/ Mexica and Inca traditions in Meso and Andean America
How did post-classical trade affect the diffusion of scientific and technological traditions
increased cross cultural interactions also resulted in the diffusion of scientific and technological traditions
1. Greek and Indian mathematics on Muslim scholars
2. return of Greek science and philosophy to western Europe via Muslim al-Andaius in Iberia
3. spread of printing and gunpowder technologies from east Asia into the Islamic empires and into Western Europe
What were the biological effects of post-classical trade?
continued diffusion of crops and pathogens throughout the Eastern Hemisphere along the trade routes
What new foods, crops, and agricultural practices diffused in the post classical era
new foods and agricultural techniques were adopted in populated areas
1. bananas in Africa
2. new rice varieties in East Asia
3. spread of cotton
4. sugar and citrus throughout Dar-al Islam and the Mediterranean basin
What diseases and pathogens also spread via post-classical trade networks
spread of epidemic diseases, including the Black Death, followed the well established paths of trade and military conquests
How did state forms develop in the post-classical era?
demonstrated remarkable continuity, innovation and diversity in various regions. In Afro-Eurasia states attempted with differing degrees of success to preserve or revive imperial structures, while smaller, less-centralized states continued to develop. Islam introduced a new concept-the caliphate- to Afro-Eurasian statecraft. Pastoral peoples in Eurasia built powerful and agrarian worlds
How did post-classical states avoid the mistakes of classical empires in the regions where classical empires collapsed
governments following the collapse of empires combined traditional sources of power and legitimacy with innovations better suited to the current circumstances
1. new methods of taxation
2. tributary system
3. adaptation of religious institutions
What new forms of governance emerged in the post-classical era
new forms of governance emerged including those developed in various Islamic states
1. Abbasids
2. Muslim Iberia
3. Delhi sultanates
4. Southeast Asia
How and where did governmental diffusion occur in the post-classical era
some states synthesized local and borrowed traditions
1.Persian traditions influencing Islamic states
2. Chinese traditions influencing Japan
How did states in the Americas develop in the post- classical era
networks of city-states flourished in the Maya region, at the end of this period, imperial systems were created by the Mexica and Inca
What technological and cultural exchanges did states encourage in the post-classical era
inter-regional contacts and coflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers
1. Tang China and the Abbasids
2. Across the Mogol empires
3. Crusades
What were the overall worldwide economic trends in the post classical era
shifts in production and the increased volume of trade stimulated new labor practices, including adaptation of existing patterns of free and coerced labor. Social and gender structures evolved in response to these changes.
What new innovations affected agriculture in the post-classical era
agricultural production increased significantly due to technological innovations
1. champa rice varieties
2. chinampa field systems
3. waru waru raised field cultivation in the Andean areas
4. improved terracing techniques
5. horse collar
How and why did crops migrate during the post-classical era?
In response to increasing demand in Afro-Eurasia for foreign luxury goods, crops were transported from their indigenous homelands to equivalent climates in other regions
How did textile and porcelain production develop in the post-classical era?
expanded their production of textiles and porcelains for export
ex. industrial production of iron and steel expanded in China
Why did some post-classical urban areas decline?
invasions, disease, the decline of agricultural productivity and the Little Ice Age
why did some post-classical urban areas prosper and grow?
Factors that contributed to urban revival included the end of invasions, the availability of sage and reliable transport, the rise of commerce and the warmer temperatures between 800 and 1300. Increased agricultural productivity and subsequent rising population and greater availability of labor also contributed to urban growth.
What roles did cities play in their societies during the post-classical era?
While cities in general continued to play the roles they had played in the past as governmental, religious and commercial centers, many older cities declined at the same time that numerous new cities took on these established roles.
How did social and labor systems develop during the post classical era?
Despite significant continuities in social structures and in methods of production, there were also some important changes in labor management and in the the effects of religious conversion on gender relations and family life.
What pre-existing labor systems develop during the post-classical era?
As in the previous period, the main forms of labor organization includedfree peasant agriculture, nomadic pastoralism, craft production and guild organization, along with various forms of coerved and unfree labor and government imposed labor taxes and military obligations.
How did social and gender hierarchies develop in the post-classical era?
As in the previous perid, social structures were shaped largely by class and caste hierarchies. partriarchy persisted; however, in some areas, women exercised more power and influence, most notably among the Mongols and in West Africa, Japan and Southeast Asia.
What new labor froms developed in the post-classical era?
New forms of coerced labor appeared including serfdom in Europe and Japan and the elaboration of the mit'a in the Inca Empire. Free peasants resisted attempts to raise dues and taxes by staging revolts (such as in China or the Byzantine Empire). The demand for slaves for both military and domestic purposes increased particularly in central Eurasia, parts of Africa and the eastern Meditteranean
Who did gender roles and family structures change in the post-classical era?
The diffusion of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Neo-Confucianism often led to significant changes in gender relations and family structure.