Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

1) speed/efficiency of processing information/ -- quality, wisdom, thinking. stage approach/describing age-related changes to uncover patterns. Experiences and challenges of adulthood - practical/flexible and dialectical thinking - to solve problems. Moral/religious development - Fowler's six stage - development of faith.

Chpt 18 Review: Developmentalist have used 3 approaches to explain cogntive development; the _______approach, the ______ approach, and the _________- ____________approach. In this chapter, Kathleen Berger emphasize the ____________approach.

stage; pscychometric; information-processing;stage
The stage approach dscribe ***** in the nature of thought.
The psychometric approach anyalzyes intelligence via IQ tests and other measures.
The information-processing approach studies encoding, storage, and retrieval of information.

2. Compared with adolescent thinking, adult thinking is more ______, _______ and ___________,

practical, flexible; dialectical

3. Reasoning that is adapted to the subjective real life contexts to which it is applied is called _________ ___________. It is characterized by problem _______, not just problem ___________. Emerging adults struggle with the problem of planning ahead, or ______ _______.

postformal thought; finding;solving;time management

The logical error in which people under value, or ignore, future consequences in favor of more immediate gratification is called ___________ ___________. Psychoactive drugs such as _______ and ________make this error ________ (more/less) likely.

delay discounting; alcohol; marijuana; more

Scholars ________(agree/do not agres) that there are stages of adult cognition. Several studies have found that adults _____________(do/do not) think in ways that adolescents ______(do/do not). One study found that although logical skills stay steady after emerging adulthood, __________ _______ continues to advance.

do not agree; do ; do not; social understanding

Developmentalists distinquish between _______ ________thinking, which arises from the __________experiences and ____________of an individual, and __________thinking, which follows abstract ___________.

subjective; personal; perceptions; objective; logic

The difference between adolescent and young adult reasoning is particularly apparent for reasoning requiring the integration of _________ and __________.

emotion; logic

In contrast to adolescent inflexibility regarding personal experiences, adults are more likely to demonstrate _________ _______when suggesting solutions to real-life problems. One of the hallmarks of post-formal thought is the ability to find ________ _______to practical problems.

cognitive flexibility (or flexible problem solving); multiple solutions

This cognitive ability is crucial to countering _____________. Researcher have found that adults have become ______________(more/less)prejudiced about race. When there are possibility of being negatively sterotyped arouses emotions that disrupt cognition, __________ __________ has occurred.

sterotypes; less; stereotype threat

Stereotype threat can make ________and ___________doubt their intellectual ability. As a result,they may become ______in academic contexts and perform below their __________. Research studies have shown that intellectual performance among students increases if they _____________the concept that intelligence is plastic and can be changed.

women, minorities; anxious; potential; internalize

Some theorists consider _________________ __________ the most advanced form of cognition. This thinking recognizes that every idea, or __________, implies an opposing idea, or ______________; These are then forged into a _________of the two. This type of thinking fosters the view that lifespan change is multidirectional, ongoing, and often surprising - that is, a __________dialectical process. This type of thinking is more often found in ____________ aged people than in ________adults.

dialectical thought; thesis ; antithesis; synthesis; dynamic; middle; emerging

Some researchers believe that some ________encourage flexible, dialectical reasoning more than others. According to this view, ancient _______philosophy has led Europeans to use __________ _________, whereas ____________ and __________have led Asians to think more ______________.

cultures; greek; analytic logic; Confucianism; Taoism; dialectically

Concluding her comparison of postformal thinking with Piaget's cognitive stages, Lynn notes that

d. postformal thinking is characterized by
"problem finding." & formal operational thinking is characterized by "problem solving." & intuitive, postformal thinking is used when logical reasoning is too cumbersome.

Which of the following is an example of responding to a sterotype threat?

b. Feeling angered that others may think him less capable because of his ethnicity. Liam becomes flustered when trying to solve a problem in front of the class.

Dr. Polaski studies how thinking during adulthood is at a different level than that of adolescence. Evidently, Dr. Polaski follows the __________ approach to the study of development.

a. stage
b Psychometric: this approach analyzes components of intelligence such as those measures of IQ tests.
c. cognitive: Each of these approaches is cognitive in nature
d. information-processing:this approach studies the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information throughout life.

When she was younger, May-Ling believed that "Honesty is always the best policy," She now realizes that although honesty is desirable, it is not always the best policy. May-Ling's current thinking is an example of ______________thought.

b. dialectical
May-Lin has formed a synthesis between the thesis that honesty is the best policy and its antithesis
a. formal: this is an example of postformal rather than formal thinking
c&d. mythic-literal and conjunctive. These are stages in the development of faith as proposed by James Fowler.

Research demonstrate that which of the following is effective in reducing stereotype threat among college students?

d. creating educational environments among students who have gender in common
- creating educational environments among students who have race in common
- interventions that help students internalize the concept that intelligence can change
(All of these conditions are effective in reducing stereotype threat).

In concluding his paper on postformal thinking, Stanley notes that

a. postformal thinking is not the same kind of universal, age-related stage that Piaget described for earlier cognitive growth.
B. Because post-formal thinking is typical of adult thought, this is untrue (very few adults attain this highest stage of reasoning)
c. It is exactly this sort of problem that fosters postformal thinking.(most everyday problems require sensitivity to subjective feelings and therefore do not foster postformal thinking.

According to many reasearchers, moral reasoning and religious beliefs are affected by adult _____________, _____________and ________________. Research by one expert indicates that one catalyst for propelling young adults from a lower moral stage to a higher one is ___________.

responsibilities,experiences; education; college

Carol Gilligan believes that in matters of moral reasoning, ______________(males/females) tend to be more concerned with the quesion of rights and justice, whereas _______________(males/females) are more concerned with personal relationship. In her view, women are raised to develop a morality of ___________,while men are taught to develop a morality of ______________. Other research ____________(does/does not) support Gilligan's description of gender differences in morality. Other factors,such as education, specific dilemmas, and _______________, correlate more strongly with morality.

males ; females; care ; justice; does not ; culture

Other moral issues that contemporary adults are likely to confront arise from increasing ___________and advance ____________, including satellite videos, international music, and the __________.

globalization; communication; Internet

The current approach to research on moral reasoning is based on a series of questions about moral reasoning called the ________ _________ ___________. In general,scores on this test increase with _____________.

Defining Issues Test; age

The theorist who has outlined six stages in the development of faith is ___________

Jame Fowler

Identify and briefly describe each stage in the development of faith: Stage 1 - Stage 6.

1) Intuitive-projective faith is magical, illogical, filled with fantasy, and typical of children age 3 to 7 .
2) Mythic-literal faith, which is typical of middle childhood, is characterized by taking the myths and stories of religion literally.
3) Synthetic-conventional faith is a nonintellectual acceptance of cultural or religious values in the context of interpersonal relationships.
4) individual-reflective faith is characterized by intellectual detachment from the values of culture and the approval of significant others.
5) Conjunctive faith incorporates both powerful unconscious ideas and rational, conscious values.
6) Universalizing faith is characterized by a powerful vision of universal compassion, justice, and love that leads people to put their own personal welfare aside in an effort to serve these values.

Although Fowler's stage theory of faith ________(is/is not) totally accepted, the idea that religion plays an important role in human development ________________(is/is not)

is not; is

Emerging adults are ______________(more/less)likely than older or younger people to attend religious services and to pray


Carol Gilliagn's research suggests that the individual who is most likely to allow the context of personal relationships to wholly determine moral decision is a

b. 20 yr old woman
a&c.(20 yr old man & 40 year old man) According to Gillian, males tend to be more concerned with human rights and justice than with human needs and personal relationships, which are more the concern of females.
d. (Gilligan does not deal with gender differences in moral thinking) Just the opposite is true of gilligan's research.

Jack's Uncle believes strongly in God but recognizes that other, equally moral people do not. The openness of his faith places him in which of Fowler's stages?

b. conjunctive faith

In Fowler's theory, at the highest stage of faith development, people incorporate into their lives a powerful vision of compassion for others. This stage is called

d. universalizing faith.

Cognitive Growth and higher Education
Compared with other adults, college graduates tend to be ________and _____. In terms of health behaviors, college graduates smoke _________(more/less), eat __________(better/worse), exercise _______________(more/less) , and live __________________(longer/shorter) lives. They are also more likely to be spouses,homeowners, and _______ ______- ______ _____. Briefly outline the year by year progression how the thinking of college students becomes more flexible and tolerant.

healthier; wealthier; less; better; more; longer; parents of healthy children
First yr. students often believe that there are clear and perfect truths to be found. This phase is followed by a wholesale questioning of personal and social values. Finally, after considering opposite ideas, students become committed to certain values, at the same time realizing the need to remain open-minded..

William Perry found that the thinking of students, over the course of their college careers, progressed throught___________levels of complexity.


Research has shown that the more years of higher education a person has, the deeper and more ____that person's reasoning is likely to become.


Worldwide, the number of students who receive higher education _______(has increased/has not increased) since the first half of the twentieth century.

has increased

Collegiate populations have become _____________(more/less) diverse in recent years. College majors also are changing, with fewer students concentrating on the _____________ and more on _____ and the _______. The structure of higher education also ______(has changed/remains the same).

more;liberal arts; bussiness;professions; has changed

(Table 18.3) In his scheme of cognitive and ethical development. Perry describes a position in which the college student says, "I see I'm going to have to make my own decisions in an uncertain world with no one to tell me I'm right. "This position marks the culmination of a phase of

c. relativism
1yr college students are more likely to believe this is so
c&d. over the course of their college careers, students become less likely to do either of these.

Research suggest that a college sophomore or junior is most likely to have reached a phase in which he or she

b. questions personal and social values, and even the idea of truth itself.

Who would be the most likely to agree with the statement, "college can be a powerful stimulus to cognitive growth"?

d. perry

Spike is in his 3rd yr at a private, religious liberal arts college, while his brother Lee is in his 3rd yr at a public, secular community college. In terms of their cognitive growth, what is the most likely outcome?

c. All other things being equal, spike an Lee will develop quite similarly.

In concluding her presentation on "The College Student of Today." Coretta states that

- The number of students in higher education has increased significantly in virtually every country worldwide.
- There are more low-income and ethnic-minority students today than ever before.
- There are more women and minority instructors than ever before.
- all of these statements are true.

Which of the following would be most helpful to know about a person in prediting whether the individual will go to college and graduate?

c. household income

PT1. 18 Chapter
1. Differences in the reasoning maturity of adolescents and young adults are most likely to be apparent when

d. emotionally charge issues are involved.
- low-SES and high-SES groups are compared.
- ethnic-minority adolescents and adults are compared
- ethnic-majority adolescents and adults are compared.:
socioeconomic status and tehnicity do not predict reasoning maturity.

2. Which of the following is NOT one of the major approaches to the study of adult cognition described in the text?

c. the systems approach

3. Compared with adolescent thinking, adult thinking tends to be

d. more flexible & more pratical & more dialectical.

4 A hallmark of mature adult thought is

b. the reconciliation of both objective and subjective approaches to real-life problems.

5. According to James Fowler, the experience of college often is a springboard to

c. individiual-reflective faith

Which approach to adult cognitive development focuses on life-span changes in the efficiency of encoding, storage,and retrieval?

b. information-processing
a. State: this approach emphasizes the emergence of a new stage of thinking that builds on the skills of formal operational thinking.
c. psychometric:This approach analyzes the measurable components of intelligence.
d. dialectical:This is a type of thinkng rather than an approach to the study of cognitive devlopment

Postformal thinking is most useful for solving ___problems

c. everyday
a,b,d: science, mathematics, abstract, logical: Because of its more analytical nature, formal thinking is most useful for solving these types of problems.

The term or the kind of thinking that involves the consideration of both poles of an idea and their reconciliation, or synthesis, in a new idea is

d. dialectical thinking.
a. subjective thinking: Thinking that is subjective relies on personal reflection rather than objective observation
b. postformal thought: Although dialectical thinking is characteristic of postformal thought, this question refers specifically to dialectical thinking.
c. adaptive resoning: Adaptive reasonig, which also is a characteristic of postformal thought, goes beyond mere logic in solving problems to also explore real-life complexities and contextual circumstances.

9. Thesis is to antithesis as _____________is to ___________.

a. a new idea; an opposing idea

10. Which of the following adjective best describe cognitive development during adulthood.

a. multidirectional and dynamic
b&c linear & steady: . Comparatively speaking, linear and steady are more descriptive of childhood and adolescent cognitive development.

11. Which of the following most accurately describes postformal thought?

c. a form of logical that combines subjectivity and objectivity.

12. The Defining Issues Test is a

d. test that assesses the impact of life events on cognitive growth and moral reasoning.

13. According to Carol Gilligan

c. moral reasoning advances during adulthood in response to the more complex moral dilemma that life poses.
a.(in matters of moral reasoning, females tend to be more concerned with the question of rights and justice) in Gilligan's theory, this is more true of males than females
b. ( in matters of moral reasoning, males tend to put human needs above principles of justice. Gilligan's theory, this is more true of females than males.

14. College today have become

d. larger & more career oriented & diverse.

15. Research has revealed that a typical outcome of college education is that students become

c. more committed to a particular value.
Although they become more committed, they realize they need to remain open-minded.

Chpter 18: 1. Only 9 percent of low-income students have a bachelor's degree by age 24


2. Most people are ususally aware of their sterotypes.

People are often unaware of their sterotypes

3. After their early 20s, most adults are mature enough to know to drink alcohol in moderation.


4. Because they recognize the changing and subjective nature of beliefs and values, dialectical thinkers avoid making personal or intellectual commitments.

dialectical thinkers recognize the need to make commitments to values even thought these values will change over time.

5. The process of moral thinking improves with age.


6. In developed nations in 2010, almost one in two emerging adults earneds a degree.


7. Postformal thought is less absolute and less abstract than formal thought


8. Mythic-literal faith, like other "lower" stages in the development of faith, is not generally found past adolescence.

May adults remain in the "lower" stages of faith, which, like "higher" stages, allow for attaining strength and wholeness

9. Students who internalize that intelligence is plastic are less likely to experience sterotype threat.


10. Moral values are powerfully affected by circumstances.


11. Delay discounting occurs at every age.


Chapter 17: PT2: 1. The early 20s are the peak years for

d. hard physcial work & problem-free reproduction & athletic performance

2. Serial monogamy refers to the practice among sexually active adults of

b. having one steady partner at a time

3. The process of aging, or senescence, begins

d. as soon as full growth is reached

4. Maximum strength potential typically begins to decline by age:

a. 25

5. Normally, the average resting heart rate for both men and women

d. remains stable until late adulthood

6. During emerging adulthood, people follow patterns of development and behavior that vary by

d. age, culture and cohort

7. During emerging adulthood, many age differences in behavior and development.

a. result more from social factors than from biological ones.

8. Most people in the United states believe that the main purpose of sex is

b. to strengthen pair bonding.

9. A loss of interest of pleasure in most activities that lasts for two weeks or more is likely to be diagnosed as

d. major depression
a. social phobia is a fear of talking to people.
b. Depression is a mood disorder
c. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is an anxiety disorder.

10. The disorder characerized by disorganized thought, delusions, and hallucinations is

c. schizophrenia
a,b,d; post-traumatic stress disorder & anxiety disorder & obsessive-compulsive disorder: Post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder are anxiety disorders and do not have these symptoms.

11. Which of the following terms does not belong with the others?

d. major depression
Major depression is a mood disorder; the other disorders are all anxiety diorders.

The social norms approach refers to 12.

b. an approach to prevention that increases young adults' awareness of social norms for risky behavior.
c. the ratio between a person's weight and height: This the body mass index.

13. Professor Whelan believes that schizophreniz and other disoders are caused by the interaction from stress and an underlying biological, psychosocial, or sociocultural predispostion. This belief is the basis of which model?

a. diathesis-stress
(taught is chapter 18 - tested in chapter 17)

14. Rates of drug abuse, except when it involves alcohol use and cigarette smoking, often fall

c. over the years of adulthood

15. Occupations or activities that require a degree of risk or danger are referred to as

b. edgework

Matching Items: 1. senscence

g. age-related decline

2. homeostasis

e. a state of physiological equilibrium

3. organ reserve

d. extra capacity for responding to stressfull events

4. set point

j. the body weight that a person's homeostatic processes strive to maintain.

5. edgework

b. an occupation that requires a degree of risk

6. drug abuse

a. using a drug to the extent of impairing one's well-being

7. body mass index

h. the ratio of a person's weight divided by his or her height.

8. drug addiction

k. a condition in which the absence of a drug triggers withdrawal symptoms.

9. anorexia nervosa

i. a BMI below 18

10. obesity

f. a BMI above 30
(20 to 25) average

11. extreme sports

c. recreation that includes apparent risk of injury or death.

Key Terms: 1. emerging adulthood

is the period of life between the ages of 18 and 25.

2. senescence

is age-related gradual physical decline throughout the body.

3. homeostasis

refers to the process by which body functions are automatically adjusted to keep our physiological functioning in a state of balance.

4. organ reserve

is the extra capacity of each body organ for responding to unusually stressful events or conditions that demand intense or prolonged effort.

5. diathesis-stress model

is the view that mental disorders are caused by the interaction of a genetic vulnerability with stressful environmental factors and life events.

6. hikikomori

is a japanese word meaning "ull awa," referring to a common anxiety disorder in japan in which emerging adults refuse to leave their rooms for months or even years at a time.

7. set point

is the specific body weight that a person's homeostatic processes strive to maintain.

8.body mass index (BMI)

is the ratio of a person's weight in kilograms divided by his or her height in meters squared.

9. edgework

refers to recreational aactivities and occupations that entail some risk or danger.

10. extreme sports

are forms of recreation that include apparent risk of injury or death and are attractive and thrilling as a result.

11. drug abuse

is drug use to the exent of impairing the user's biological or psychological health.

12 drug addiction

is evident in a person when the absence of a drug in his or her body produces the drive to ingest more of the drug.

13. social norms approach

to reducing risky behaviors uses survey data regarding the prevalence of risky behaviors to make emerging adults more aware of social norms within their peer group.

Chapter 18 Progress Test 2: 1
Which approach to adult cognitive development emphasizes the analysis of components of intelligence?

b. psychometric
a. postformal: this approach emphasizes the possible emergence in adulthood of new stages of thinking that build on the skills of earlier stages.
c. information-processing:This approach studies the encoding, storage, and retrieveal of information throughout life.

2. Which approach to adult cognitive development "picks up where Piaget left off"?

c. post formal

3. As adult thinking becomes more focused on occupational and interpersonal demands, it also become LESS inclined toward

a. inflexibility:
b&c. (dialectical thought & adaptive thought) During adulthood, thinking typically become more dialectical and adaptive

4. The result of dialectical thinking is a view that

b. life-span change is dynamic
a&c: On the contrary, a dialectic view recognizes the limitations of extreme relativism and that one's self evolves continuously.

5. The existence of a fifth, postformal stage of cognitive development during adulthood

c. remains controversial among developmental researchers.

6. Formal operational thinking is most useful for solving problems that

a. involve logical relationships or theoretical possiblities
b,c,d:(require integrative skills & involve the synthesis of diverse issues & require seeing perspectives other than one's own) Post formal thought is most useful for solving problems such as these

7. College seems to make people more accepting of other people's attitudes because it

b. promotes recognition of many perspectives.
The impact of college on self-esteem and extroversion were not discussed. Moreover, it is unclear how such an impact would make a person more accepting of others.

8. The goal of dialectical thinking is forging a (n) ____from oppoosing poles of an idea.

c. synthesis
a. A theiss is a new idea
b. An anthithes is an idea that opposes a particular thesis
d. hypothesis, which are testable predictions abouut behavior, are not an aspect of dialectical thinking.

9. Formal operational thinking is to postformal thinking as ______is to __________-.

b. adolescence : adulthood

10. According to James Fowler, which type of faith is typical of middle childhood?

b. mythic-literal
a. Intuitive-projective faith is typical of children ages 3 to 7
c&d. Synthetic-conventional faith and individual-reflective faith are more typical of adulthood.

11. According to James Fowler, individual-reflective faith is marked by

d. the beginnings of independent questioning of teachers and other figures of authority.
a. (a willingness to accept contradictions)This describes conjunctive faith
b. ( a burning need to enunciate universal values)This describes universalizing faith
c. (a literal, wholehearted belief in myths and symbols)This describes mythic-lteral faith.

12. Moral principles that judge right and wrong in absolute terms constitute a

b. morality of compassion

13. According to James Fowler, the simplest stage of faith is the stage of

b. intuitive-projective faith

14. Many of the problems of adult life are characerized by ambiguity, partial truths, and extenuating circumstances, and therefore are often best solved using ________thinking.

c. postformal
a. Formal thinking is best suited to solving problems that require logic and analytical thinking.
b&d: (reintegrative & executive) These terms are not discussed in the text

15. A classic study by Perry showed that the thinking of students in college progresses through how many levels of complexity?

b. 9

Key Terms: Writing Definitions
1. postformal thought

Proposed by some developmentalists as a fifth stage of cognitive development, postformal thought is suited to solving real-world problems and is more practical, more flexible, and more dialectical than adolescent thought.

2. delay discounting

is a logical error in which people under value, or ignore, future consequences in favor of more immediate gratification

3. subjective thought

is thinking that arises from our personal experiences and perceptions.

4. objective thought

is thinking that follows abstract, impersonal logic

5. stereotype threat

is the possiblility that ones' appearance or behavior may be misread to confirm another person's oversimplified, prejudiced attitude.

6. dialectical thought

is the most advanced cognitive process that involves considerig both poles of an idea (thesis and antithesis) simultaneously and then forging them into a synthesis.

7. thesis

The first stage of dialectical thinking, a thesis is aproposition or statement of belief.

8. antithesis

A statement that contradicts the thesis, antithesis is the second stage of dialectical thinking

9. synthesis

The final stage of dialectical thinking, the synthesis reconciles thesis and antithesis into a new more comprehensive level of truth.

10. morality of care

According to Carol Gilligan, women are raised to develop a morality of care: they give human needs and relationships highest priority.

11. morality of justice

According to Carol Gilligan, men are raised to develop a morality of justice; their emphasis on distingishing right from wrong.

12. Defining Issues Test

The DIT is a seris of questions developed by James Rest about moral dilemmas used to assess moral reasoning.

Cross Check: 1. Stage of faith in which a person has a powerful vision of compassion, justice,and love that applies to all people.


7. The final stage of dialectical thinking


8. A proposition or statement of belief


13. Theorist who believes that as their life experiences expand, both males and famales broaden their moral perspecitves.


15. Types of thinking that arises from the personal experiences and perceptions of an individual


Down; 2. Faith that is magical, illogical, imaginative, and filled with fantasy.


3. Thinking that involves consideration of both poles of an idea simultaneously.


4. Theorist who delineated six stage of faith


5. Thinking that is suited to solving real world problems and is less abstract, less absolute, and more integrative and synthestic than formal thought.


6. Test of moral reasoning that consists of a series of question about moral dilemmas

Defining Issues

9. Approach to adult congition that analyzes components of intelligence such as those measured by IQ tests.


10. Second stage of dialectical thinking


11. Thinking that follows abstract, impersonal logic.


12. During early adulthood, the experience that deepens thinking and leads people to become more tolerant of view that differ from their own.


Theorist who described the progressive changes in thinking during the college years.


Chronological age

is an imperfect boundary in adulthood. That is why they use 3 main research tradtions : stage approach; psychometric approach; information-processing approach.

Chapter 18: focuses on

postformal thought

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording