Upgrade to remove ads
Oncology Final Review Cards
Terms in this set (30)
use a core needle and punch it through tumor or tissue suspicious of cancer and get a core sample- pinch of tissue so they can see what cancer it is if it is cancer. Usually do it on breast tumors- needle localization - usually done on conscious sedation
remove a wedge, take out part of suspected tissue or tumor
leave some tumor cells there
Not sure what it is,
done on benign tumors to make sure its not malignant
remove entire tissue area-leave surrounding tissue alone, still in diagnostic stage
multiple core needle aspirations on different tissues, suspicious of metastases,
They will do bone marrow biopsy, liver marrow biopsy, biospy of prostate.
seeing if in other areas
Self breast exam teaching
-EVERY ONE DOES IT men and women
-Females over 20
Monthly (one week after onset of period)
If older and no periods (same time every month)
-In front of mirror, look for symmetry,
raise arms above head, check for symmetry, one hand behind head, palpate around breast starting from outer edges working in clockwise pattern till you get to nipple, make sure this is no discharge,
then go to armpit. then lie down and do it again.
- Breast familiarity is best tool
tissue thickening is early sign
JP drain for each breast - one for cavity where breast tissue was- other for lymph area
POSITION: High fowlers position with affected arm above head so it doesn't get swollen.
EXERCISES: squeeze tennis ball, Wall hand climbing, rope turning, broom stick lifting, pulley tugging.
Deficiency of platelets
Platelets are <100,000
Normal 100,000 or 150,000 - 400,000 or 450,000
Risk for bleeding - check vital signs, check b/p and heart rate, skin looks petechiae.
Assess bleeding gums, occult stool, urine for blood color, drains,
risk for falls
Use soft bristle toothbrush
Hemoglobin counts = Less than 11 g/dl
4. altered LOC,
5. Inability to concentrate,
6. color is pale (Pallor),
7. Difficulty staying warm,
8. pagophagia (ice craving),
9. low B/P,
10. Increased Heart rate.
Educate on diet
Activity - promote rest in-between- pace according to tolerance level
nutrition - small frequent feedings - green leafy vegetables, fruits
High fluid intake
RBC at 8 - managed by blood transfusion
RBC transfusion - need physical order, consent, type and cross match
Combine surgery and chemo and/or radiation or some combo of those
Only curative is when they remove a benign lump
remove all identifiably tumor area along with a very small margin of normal tissue. For very small localized tumors like the breast
Wide local excision
removal of tumor itself and immediate tissue next to it and a little more, for small tumors that you know have a little local invasion.
Extended Radical excision
extreme, removes tumor, all lymph nodes adjacent to it, tissues in that region, and adjacent organs near it too. On tumors they know that have distant metastasize.
surgery that's done to help with pain (turmor that causing a lot of pain or never issues), not a cure, you still have the cancer, just removed that one certain tumor to relieve pain
skin type cancers, they grow slowly so they can just scrape them right off real easily before it gets out of hand.
Sealed Internal Therapy (Brachytherapy)
Lead-lined glove & Apron
TIME, DISTANCE, SHIELD
NEVER TOUCH IMPLANTS WITH BARE HANDS
Forceps should always be kept in the client's room
If implants fall out, contact radiation safety officer
Exposure can only occur by direct
Assess if they are able to take care of themselves
Breast Cancer Symptoms
*One breast is larger than the other
(some naturally have one bigger than the other)
*Inverted nipples or dimpling
(caused by tumor itself)
*Orange like texture
*Swollen lymph nodes under arms
*A lump or thickening of the breast that persists past menstrual cycle
*Rash or red, warm and swollen
*Painless lumps on outer aspect of breast (DO NOT MOVE)
Chemo or fluid escapes the vein, It will burn. (chemical cellulitis)
Tissue is inflamed and die (necrosis)
-Aspirate any residual drug if you can
-Whole entire line is removed. If PICC line, remove whole PICC. If a port, contract surgery to remove.
-Apply cool compress never heat.
Breast Cancer Risk Factors
leading causes of death in women between ages of 40-55
Older you are the higher the risk
<>5-10% of all breast cancers are genetically
<>Higher risk if you have two or more relatives with breast cancer
<>If breast cancers occurs before age of 50 in relative on either side of family.
<>if relative was a mother or sister.
<>If you have relatives who had both breast and ovarian cancer
<>If you had cancer in one breast- the risk in the other breast is high
White women more likely to develop breast cancer
African american women are more likely to die
If you started your period before 12, if went through menopause after 55 (late)
If you never been pregnant or didn't have first pregnancy till after age 30
If you took oral contraceptives, menopausal estrogen replacement therapy.
outside going into patients
Simulation - planning phase before real radiation treatment happens
Goes through CT scan, images sent to computer so they can also pre plan the target area
Precision - Target only cancer cells
Cannot spare normal cells- we allow breathing, Motion activity of organ next to tumor
Try to decrease exposure of those normal cells
External beam radiation
Preventing skin breakdown
-Clean with mild soap, luke warm water, do not rub
-No powder, heating pads, ice packs, stay out of sun, no tight clothing,
- radiation burns (turn skin neon purple, pink color, scalding, desquamation, flaky, red, warm and hot temp.
Do not remove- reassessed every week to see if they shrink -- READJUST
External Beam Radiation
small frequent meals
MEGACE - appetite booster
External Beam Radiation
rest before/after meals
breakfast best tolerated meal of day
small frequent meals
Sour beverages to relieve nausea
High protein, CHO, Fat free, low residue diet
Systemic radiation therapy (Unsealed internal radiation)
I131 - thyroid cancer
Anything that comes out the patient is considered radioactive - sweat, urine, stool
NPO at least 2 hrs before ingest, absorption and to prevent N/V
Promote hydration - need to flush radiation - at least 3-4L a day
How to excrete? Encourage high fluid intake, daily bathing, elimination.
may give stool softener
1. washed/peeled fruits and vegetables
2. cannot have meat that's still on the bone
3. avoid raw foods (like eggs/sushi)
4. steak tartar
5. meet has to be cooked and not on the bone
only take a part of the breast containing the lump, small marginal tissue surround it.
Are for benign breast tumors or fibromas
removes portion of breast along with tumor and a very small number of lymph nodes
removes breast, all the skin and nipple but leaves the lymph nodes
For cancer that has not metastasized to regional lymphs
Modified Radical Mastectomy
Take entire breast, whole nipple, and varied amounts of lymph nodes (won't take all)
Takes breast tissue, skin, nipple, and underlying chest muscle, take out lymph nodes and muscle.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Neuro 1 and 2
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Breast Cancer - Chapter 70
Med surg ch42 reproductive system
1247 Breast Disorders
med surg oncology 2012
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Lecture 7 Ch. 26, 27,
Pharm Test Meds
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
personal finance unit 4
Social Studies Final - Australia and Oceania
Module 4 Chapter 5 Quiz
207 Basic Concepts of Temperature 2P051A 02 1212,…