Navy CS Stocks & Sauces Q & A (From the Art & Science of Culinary Preparation)

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What is the definition of Stock?
a. The original source from which something is derived
b. A liquid in which meat, fish or vegetables are simmered
c. The basis for soup, sauce, gravy or stew
d. All of the above
All of the above
(True/False) If stock is not made properly, whatever is made from it will be of poor quality
True
What term is the base for much cooking and is described as the result of the extraction and concentration of taste and nutrients. It is usually seen in the form of small bits and pieces in the bottom of pans
Fond
What are the three basic kinds of stock
White, Brown, and Neutral (Vegetable)
(True/False) A stock that is made with beef or beef bones will be slightly brown in color, but may still be considered a white stock
True
Mirepoix is a combination of diced vegetables that is added to stock to impart flavor. What is percentage breakdown of Mirepoix?
a. 50% Carrots/25% Onions/25% Celery
b. 50% Celery/25% Carrots/25% Onions
c. 50% Onions/25% Celery/25% Shallots
d. 50% Onions/25% Carrots/25% Celery
50% Onions/25% Carrots/25% Celery
What are the four elements of a stock
Nourishing element (Bones/Fish Heads), Aromatics (Mirepoix/Bouquets/Sachets), Liquid or Water & Seasoning (normally salt only)
What would be the cause of a poor quality fish stock?
a. Bitter taste
b. Fishy tasting
c. Appears gelatinous or milky
d. All of the above
All of the above
Bones are roasted in the oven and the Mirepoix is added when the bones are __________ of the way done?

a. ¼ of the roasting time
b. ½ of the roasting time
c. ¾ of the roasting time
d. Added at the very beginning
¾ of the roasting time
How long should Beef or Veal stock simmer for?

a. 6 - 8 Hours
b. 8 - 10 Hours
c. 10 - 12 Hours
d. 12 - 14 Hours
8 - 10 Hours
A slight amount of cloudiness is normal in stock. What else can be done to ensure the stock doesn't become overly cloudy?

a. Ensure the bones and/or meat/fish are washed thoroughly
b. Ensure that you skim your stock during cooking (Depouillage)
c. Ensure that your stock does not boil
d. Ensure that you strain your sauce and cool as required
Ensure that your stock does not boil
What term is used to describe, "Herbs, spices & vegetables tied with a string"
Bouquet Ganri
(True/False) Glaze/Glace is a reduced form of the principle strength and flavor of a stock, and have been reduced to a syrup consistency.
False It gives a brilliant shine
This term is actually not a stock, however, it is a flavorful poaching liquid used for fish and shellfish
Court Bouillon
The Mother sauces form a foundation for many culinary preparations. What are the 4 mother sauces
Béchamel, Veloute, Tomato, & Espagnole (Brown)
(True/False) Mother Sauces are prepared in bulk but have a relatively short shelf-life in the refrigerator
False
What are the two major groupings of sauces
Hot & Cold
List the 3 components of a major sauce
Liquid, Thickening agent, & Flavor/Seasoning
List the 4 essentials of a good sauce
Texture, Consistency, Flavor to complement dish, & Color to accent dish (light or heavy)
20. (Matching) A liquid ingredient provides the body or base of each of the mother sauces. Place the corresponding number in the space provided.

Liquid
a. _White Stock 1. Espagnole (Demi-Glace)
b. _Tomato Sauce & Stock 2. Béchamel
c. _ Brown Stock 3. Veloute
d. _ Milk 4. Tomato
a. __3__
b. __4__
c. __1__
d. __2__
A cooked mixture of about 50 percent-sifted flour and 50 percent clarified fat is called
a Roux
What is clarified Butter?

a. Butter that has gone through hydrogenation
b. Butter that has had the butterfat removed
c. Pure butterfat (water and milk solids are removed)
d. Margarine with a lower smoke point
c. Pure butterfat (water and milk solids are removed)
Which of the following is not a type of Roux?

a. Neutral Roux
b. Blond Roux
c. Brown Roux
d. White Roux
Neutral Roux
Starches are the main thickening agent in cooking. It is starch that gives a sauce its viscosity and consistency. Which of the following types of starch will provide the best shine, but be difficult to work with and expensive?

a. Cornstarch
b. Tapioca starch
c. Arrowroot
d. Flour
Arrowroot
What specific purpose are wines used in sauces?

a. To provide acidy to the sauce
b. To add subtle flavor and richness
c. To improve the consistency of the sauce
d. All of the above
To add subtle flavor and richness
What are the 2 advantages of the process "reduction" in preparing sauces
Concentrate flavors & Develop Consistency
Beurre Blanc (Butter Sauce), Hollandaise, & Béarnaise are three examples of what kind of sauces
Hot emulsion Sauces
(True/False) Espagnole (Brown Sauce) is the halfway point in the production of traditional Demi-glace
True
What type of sauce is the "best" classical white sauce and is made from flavorful chicken stock
Supreme Sauce
When preparing a compound sauce from a mother sauce, why are shallots instead of onions normally used during the preparation process
Shallots are more subtle in flavor (but are more expensive)
What 3 common characteristics do all shellfish sauces have
A compound butter is added, Cayenne pepper is used as a spice, & the sauce is characterized by the color of the shellfish used
For best results, what can be done to extract additional flavor from the shellfish
Saute in hot fat & salt
The bringing together of elements which do not readily mix is called
An emulsion
What is the stabilizing ingredient in Hollandaise sauce?

a. Lemon Juice
b. Vinegar
c. Egg Yolks
d. Oil
Egg Yolks
Emulsion sauces are notorious for their tendency to separate. The quality of these sauces depends on the use of what key ingredient?

a. Freshness of the eggs
b. Best unsalted butter
c. Room temperature eggs
d. The temperature of the butter
Best unsalted butter
(True/False) If an emulsified sauce is subjected to too high a temperature, or allowed to stand for too long, it will separate
True
What type of food is Béarnaise sauce best served with
Hearty foods such as broiled steak, lamb or salmon
Butter that has one or more chopped or pureed substances added is called
Compound Butter
What is the purpose of compound butters
To accentuate the flavor of another sauce
(True/False) The key steps to building a sauce are to achieve proper taste, produce the type of roux needed, and to create the liaison between the two
True
A Bordelaise Sauce contains red wine and is a derivative of what Mother Sauce?
a. Espagnole (Demi-Glace)
b. Bechamel
c. Veloute
d. Tomato
Espagnole (Demi-Glace)
A Mornay Sauce contains Gruyere and Parmesan Cheese and is derived from what Mother Sauce?
a. Espagnole (Demi-Glace)
b. Bechamel
c. Veloute
d. Tomato
Bechamel
A Bercy Sauce consists of Shallots, Butter, White Wine, and Parsley and is a derivative of what Mother Sauce?
a. Espagnole (Demi-Glace)
b. Bechamel
c. Veloute
d. Both A & C
Both A & C
A Provencale Sauce has sliced mushrooms, garlic, and parsley and is made from what Mother Sauce?
a. Espagnole (Demi-Glace)
b. Bechamel
c. Veloute
d. Tomato
Tomato
Robert Sauce is a reduction of White Wine, Onions, Mustard and Butter and is derived from what Mother Sauce?
a. Espagnole (Demi-Glace)
b. Bechamel
c. Veloute
d. Tomato
Espagnole (Demi-Glace)