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removal of drug from body

places drugs excreted from

liver (bile)
intestines (feces)
saliva/sweat/mamma glands

glomerlular filtration affected by:

1. kidney health/blood perfusion
2.chem/phys properties (only small mols filtered, protein bound drug is not filtered)
3. water soluble drugs can be reabsorbed in tubules
4. pH of urine

active secretion (affects kidney filtration)

proximal or distal tubules
active transport
penicillin concentrates in urine, good for UTI

liver secretion

bile stored in gallbladder, drugs actively secreted by livers cells into bile, through intestinal tract
-drug may get reabsorbed into body if its still lipophilic (enterohepatic circulation)

intestinal excretion

wormers, neomycin dont get absorbed orally, go out in feces

milk excretion

drugs go from blood to milk, may get ion trapped (normal pH of milk is 6-7, mastitis milk is 7-8)

half life of drug

amt of time it takes for half the drug to leave body
-antibiotics= 2-3 hr halflife
-barbituates= 30-70 hours


abnormal response to drug by individual


decrease dose due to allergy/side effects


-drug binds to target cells at receptor sites on cell
-receptor sites are different (unique for drug)
-drug + correct receptor= desired response


drug stimulates the site


drug inhibits activity at site, blocks/reverses another drug's activity at the site

reversal agents

naloxone (opioids), flumazenil (valium), tolazoline (LA rompun)


sum of both drugs is greater than the benefit of each used and added up (2+2=5)


quartermaster (pen G and dihydrostreptomycin) in dry cow's udder (2 drugs does better than each separately)

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