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Patho-1,3

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A cell is isolate for microscopy. It is observed to have supercoiled DNA with histones. What type of cell is it and what else would be observed?
Nucleus of Eurkaryote Cell
An isolated cell is observed to absorb oxygen and use it to transform nutrient to energy. Which cellular functions it is displaying?
Respiration
A eukaryote cell is undergoing DNA replication. In which region of the cell would most of the genetic information be contained?
Nucleolus
The fluid mosaic model for biological membranes describes membrane behavior. According to this model, which of the following float singly or as aggregates in the fluid lipid bilayer?
Integral membrane proteins
A patient with a metastatic cancer would be expected to have alternations in extracellular matrix that would have a decreased amount of:
fibronectin
Which form of cell communication is used to communicate with other cells in direct physical contact?
Cell junction
Pancreatic beta cells secrete insulin, which inhibits secretion of glucagons from neighboring alpha cells. This action is an example of which signaling types?
Paracrine
In cellular metabolism, each enzyme has a high affinity for a:
Substrate
An athlete runs a marathon, after which his muscle feel fatigued and unable to contract. A deficiency in _____ would cause impaired muscle contraction.
ATP
The three phases of cellular catabolism are:
digestion, glycolosis & oxidation, citric acid cycle (Krebs)
A runner has depleted all the oxygen available for muscle energy. Which of the following will facilitate his continued muscle performance?
Anaerobic glycolysis
The movement of small, electrically uncharged molecule from an area of high concentration to low concentration through a semipermeable barrier is an example of:
Diffusion
Electrolytes are:
Electrically charge molecules
What is the predominant extracellular cation?
Na+ (Sodium)
A tissue capillary bed has a hydrostatic pressure of 25 mm Hg and an oncotic pressure of 10mm Hg. The filtration pressure if ____ mmHg.
15
A patient has a body fluid of 300 mOsm/kg. This measure if termed:
Osmolality
The movement of fluid across the arterial end of capillary membranes into the interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary is an example of which process of fluid movement?
Hydrostatic pressure
A patient who has diarrhea receives a hypertonic saline solution intravenously to replace the sodium and chloride lost in the stool. Which effect will this fluid replacement have on cells?
Cells will shrink
By which method is the transport of glucose from the blood to the cell accomplished?
Passive transport
Which enzyme is involved in the active transport of potassium and soium across plasma membranes?
ATPase
At rest, the membrane potential is nearly the equilibrium potential for potassium. Why is potassium able to diffuse easily in and out of cells?
Because the resting plasma membrane is more permeable to potassium
The ion transporter that moves Na+ and Ca2+ simutaneously in the same direction is an example of:
Symport
The process during which lysosomal enzymes can be released to degrade engulfed particles is referred to as:
Phagocytosis
The phase during the cell cycle where nuclear and cytoplasmic division occurs is called:
M
What causes the rapid change in the resting membrane potential that initiates the action potential?
Sodium gates open, and sodium rushes into the cell changing the membrane
A cell is isolated and electrophyisiology studies reveal that the resting membrane potential is -70 millvolts. The predominant intracellular ion is Na+ and the predominant extracellular ion is K+. WIth voltage change, which of the following would result in an action potential?
K+ rushing into the cell
Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates the production of:
connective tissue cells
The phase of the cell cycle during which the centromeres split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart is referred to as:
anaphase
What is the role of cytokines in cell reproduction?
Provides growth factor for tissue growth and development
A biopsy of the lung bronchi revealed ciliated epithelial cells that are capable of secretion and absorption. These cells are classified as:
ciliated simple columnar epithelium
Muscle atrophy involves a decrease in muscle cell:
size
During childhood, the thymus decreases in size, referred to as:
physiological atrophy
In response to an increased workload, cardiac myocardial cells:
increase in size
A 55 year old male with a 30 year history of smoking is examined for respiratory disturbance. Examination of his airway (bronchial) reveals that stratified squamous epithelial cells have replaced the normal columnar ciliated cells. The type of cellular adaptation is called:
Metaplasia
a 24 year old female presents with excessive menstrual bleeding. Labratory results reveal an imbalance of progesterone and estrogen, with estrogen secretion being elevated. This imbalance would most likely cause endometrial changes referred to as:
pathologic hyperplasia
A 55-year-old male is diagnosed with hepatocellular cancer secondary to hepatitis C. If the cancerous region of the liver were removed, the remaining cells would undergo:
compensatory hyperplasia.
A 40-year-old female is undergoing treatment for cervical cancer. Which of the following cellular changes is most likely to be associated with her cancer?
Dysplasia
A 75-year-old male presents with chest pain with exertion. He was previously diagnosed with arteriosclerosis. The chest pain is most likely due to hypoxic injury secondary to:
ischemia
What substances can cause Cellular injury:
lead, carbon monoxide and ethanol
Sodium and water accumulation in an injured cell are a direct result of:
decreased ATP production
The early dilation (swelling) of the cell's endoplasmic reticulum results in:
reduced protein synthesis
A 52-year-old male suffered a myocardial infarction secondary to atherosclerosis and ischemia. Once oxygen returned to the damaged heart, reperfusion injury occurred as a result of:
free radical formation.
A family presents to their physician complaining of headache, nausea, weakness, and vomiting. Which of the following would be the most likely explanation for these symptoms?
Carbon monoxide poisoning
Fatty liver, as a result of carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) poisoning, is related to:
decreased apoproteins