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90 terms

Chapter 7

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In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of youngsters closes too early. What might be the cause ....
elevated levels of sex hormones
The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of the bone is the .....
Osteoblast
The small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live are called ....
Lacunae
Vertebrae are considered ..... bones.
Irregular
Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ...
Fat
What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo...
Hyaline Cartilage
For intramembranous ossification to take place, what is necessary...
An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue
A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ...
Diaphysis
Production of hormones is not a function of what system....
Skeletal
Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ....
calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ...
Hyaline
The universal loss of mass seen in skeleton, which begins about the age 40 ....
reflects an imbalance in the bone remodeling process
The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called...
Sharpey's Fibers
The term diploe refers to.....
the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ....
from the epiphysis to the diaphysis
Bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ...
growth of the epiphyseal plates
Which hormone increases oseoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the blood stream....
Parathyroid Hormone
Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood....
Growth Hormone
Cranial bones develop...
Within fibrous connective tissue membranes
Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ...
Trabeculae
The canal that runs through the core of each osteon is the site of ...
blood vessels and nerve fibers
In bone formation, a deficiency of growth hormone will cause...
decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
Osteogenesis is the process of
bone remodeling and bone formation
Wolff's law is concerned with
the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
The process of bones increasing in width is called
Appositional growth
Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called the periosteum. The inner layer consists mainly of ...
Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
The functional unit of a compact bone is ...
The Osteon
Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which cells accomplish this process.....
Osteoclasts
Which glands produce hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels..
Thyroid
It is thought that remodeling or bone growth is in response to the forces place on it. Which hypothesis may explain how mechanical forces communicate with cells responsible for bone remodeling....
Electrical signals direct the remodeling process
The type of bone tissue found in the interiour of flat bones and epiphyses is called
Spongy Bone
....is a former chondroblast that has become enclosed in a lacuna in the cartilage matrix.
Chondrocytes
The type of cartilage with a relatively clear matrix, fine collagen fibers, and no conspicuous elastic fibers is called...... cartilage.
Hyaline
The process of bone formations is called.....
Ossification
A thin plate or layer of tissue, particularly those found in spongy bone is called.....
Trabeculae
The ions .... and .... needed by osteoblasts for deposition into the bone matrix come from the blood.
Calcium / Phosphate
The ..... is the layer of Reticular Connective Tissue lining the internal surfaces of a bone.
Endosteum
The expanded end of a long bone is the ....
Epiphysis
The shaft of a long bone is the ....
Diaphysis
Bones that have a broad curved shape are
Flat Bones
In order for minerals such as calcium and phosphate to be liberated into the blood streatm the process called ..... must occur.
Resorption
..... is a calcium phosphate salt deposited within the bone.
Hydroxyapatite
Bone tissue comprised of trabeculae is called ...... bone. It is also called ..... bone.
Spongy / Cancellous
The Connective Tissue bands that hold bones together at the joints are.....
Ligaments
The bone tissue called ..... bone is made up of parallel osteons that are tightly packed together and covers the surface of most bones.
Compact
The carpal bones of the wrist are classified as ...... bones.
Short
The ..... is the Connective Tissue surrounding the external surface of a bone.
Periosteum
Name the type of ossification that forms the flat bones in the skull.
Intramembraneous Ossification
During Intramembraneous Ossification osteoid tissue is developed by cells called.....
Osteoblasts
Osseous Tissue is a connective tissue with a hardened matrix that makes up organs called ....
Bones
The narrow channels connecting neighboring lacunae are called....
Canaliculi
Lacunae are located between the concentric rings of compact bone tissue that are called ....
Lamallae
Cell bodies of osteocytes are found in compact bone within tiny spaces called ....
Lacunae
Another name for the perforating canal is the ..... canal.
Volkmann
The type of growth that involves the deposition of new tissue on the surface is called ..... growth.
Appositional
Describe the effect of Calcitonin on bone cells ....
Inhibits Osteoclasts; Stimulates Osteoblasts
Describe the Metaphysis of a bone....
Transitional area between diaphysis and epiphysis
Bones that have elaborate shapes are .... bones.
Irregular
The hollow space within the diaphysis of a long bone is called the .... cavity.
Medullary
The .... ..... is found between the epiphysis and diaphysis in pre-pubertal youth and is the site of bone elongation.
Epiphyseal Plate
Name the type of opening into the surface of a bone that allows passage of blood vessels into bone tissue.
Nutrient Foramina
...... ..... is the structural material that is replaced with bone during endochondral ossification.
Hyaline Cartilage
During Enchondral Ossification, as cartilage at the primary ossification center breaks down, osteoblasts begine to form a ..... ...... around the cartilage model.
Bone Collar
In a child, red bone marrow is found in the medullary cavities of ....
Almost all Bones
Name the role of yellow bone marrow ....
Storage of Energy
Bone marrow fills the spaces between the trabeculae in .... bone.
Spongy
In spongy bone .... are lined up along the bone's lines of stress.
Trabeculae
The site of primary ossification during Endochondral Ossification is the ....
Diaphysis
A gelatinous embryonic connective tissue derived from the mesoderm, which differentiates into all permanent connective tissues and most muscle is called ....
Mesenchyme
A low blood calcium level stimulates the release of .....
Parathyroid Hormone
Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called the Periosteum. The inner layer consists primarily of .....
Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
The small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live are called:
Lacunae
In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows:
from the epiphysis to the diaphysis.
What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?
Hyaline Cartilage
The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the
Osteoblast
Spongy bones are made up of a framework called:
Trabeculae
The functional unit of compact bone is:
The Osteon
The process of bones increasing in width is known as:
Appositional Growth
Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of:
Fat
A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the
Diaphysis
In the human body ...... percent of calcium is in the bones.
99
An increase in the length of a long bone occurs by cartalagenous ...... growth at the epiphyseal plate.
Interstitial
A spongy bone is produced by intramembraneous ossification cells called .....
Osteoclasts
..... hormone is secreted and produced by the parathyroid glands.
Parathyroid
The layer of connective tissue surrounding the cartilage is called the ....
Perichondrium
In compact bone, remnants of old osteons can be seen between complete osteons. What are the remnants called ....
Interstitial Lamallae
The type of bone tissue at the surface of bones is called ....
Compact Bone
The source of calcium and phosphate used to mineralize bone is.....
Blood
The .... is a transitional area between the shaft and cartilagenous head of a developing bone.
Metaphysis
What is the process in which the dense regular connective tissue hardens to form a bone as a result of deposition of calcium phosphate and other minerals...
Mineralization