How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

112 terms

Chapter 9

STUDY
PLAY
The joint between a tooth and an alveolar socket is called ....
gomphosis
Which joint is most movable
synovial
What covers the ends of bones in synovial joints....
articular cartilage
The function of a bursa is to
provide a fluid-filled cushion
The joint capsule
is a double layer of tissue that encloses a synovial joint
Synovial Fluid
is a think lubricating film covering the surface of a joint
RFE
first class lever
seesaw
FRE
second class lever
wheelbarrow
REF
third class lever
paddling canoe
The hyaline cartilage that attaches a rib to the sternum forms ...
a synchondrosis
A knuckle joint is
a condyloid joint
The pubic symphysis is made up of ...
fibrocartilage
The articular cartilage found in synovial joint is ...
hyaline cartilage
The crescent shaped meniscus in the knee joint is composed of ...
fibrocartilage
This part of the synovial joint encloses the cavitym, retains the synovial fluid, and is continuous with the periosteum...
fibrous capsule
The elbow is an example of what type of joint...
hinge
If you are moving your head from side to side to say no you are using what type of joint....
pivot
The movement in which one end of an appendage remains relatively stationary while the other end makes a circular motion is ....
circumduction
A uniaxial joint like the elbow is capable of what movement....
flexion and extension
Which synovial joint is most moveable....
ball and socket
Rotating your forearm so that the palm faces forward or up is called ....
supination
Monaxial
moves through one plane
one degree of freedom
Biaxial
moves through two planes
two degrees of freedom
Multiaxial
moves through all planes
three degrees of freedom
How are joints functionally classified...
by degree of movement
What are the three functional classifications of joints...
synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis
Synarthrosis
immovable
Amphiarthrosis
slightly moveable
Diarthrosis
freely moveable
How are joints structurally classified...
by what is holding the bones together
Bony Joint
gap between bones, ossifies, immovable
Fibrous Joint
collagen fibers join the bones
Types of Fibrous Joints
Sutures, Syndesmosis, Gomphosis
Sutures
join cranial bones - 3 types - serrate, lap, plane
What are the three types of sutures....
serrate, lap, plane
Syndesmosis
slightly movable due to longer collagen fibers
Gomphosis
attach tooth to the bony socket
What are the structural classifications of joints...
bony joint, fibrous joint, cartilagenous joint, synovial joint
Cartilagenous Joints
Synchondrosis, Symphysis
Synchondrosis
hyaline cartilage joining bones
Symphysis
fibrocartilage
Examples of Synchondrosis
Epiphyseal Plate, Costal Cartilage - ribs to sternum
Examples of Symphysis
Pubic Symphysis, Intervertebral Discs
Pubic Symphysis
anterior joint between coxal bones
Intervertebral Discs
pads between vertebrae
Synovial Joint
joint capsule that encloses the joint- the joint cavity contains synovial fluid
has two layers
fibrous capsule, synovial membrane
Fibrous Capsule
outer layer
Synovial Membrane
secrete synovial fluid
Articular Disc
grow in from capsule and divides the capsule into two cavities
Meniscus
cartilage pads, do not extend across entire joint
Accessory Structures
tendons, ligaments, bursa
Tendons
fibrous connective tissue that connect muscle to bone
Ligaments
fibrous connective tissue that connect bone to bone
Bursa
fibrous sacs, filled with synovial fluid, pad to protect or prevent irritation where tendons or muscles over bone
Factors for degree of flexibility
articular surfaces of the bones, ligaments, action of muscles
Classes of Synovial Joints
gliding joint, hinge joint, pivot joints, condyloid joint, saddle joints, ball and socket
Gliding Joint
2 flat surfaces that slide
carpals and tarsals
Hinge Joint
monaxial - one plane - elbow, knee, fingers
Pivot Joints
rotate on axis
c1 and c2 vertebrae
proximal radius/ulna
Condyloid Joint
biaxial
knuckles - between metacarpals and phalanges
Saddle Joint
base of thumb
Ball and Socket
multiaxial
shoulder, humerus, scapula/divide
Flexion
downward angle
Extension
upward angle, straighten joint
Abduction
move body part away from midline
raise arm/legs to side
Adduction
bring body part back to midline
Circumduction
stationary end with other moving in circles
Rotation
bone spins on axis
Supination
palms forward/ up
Pronation
palms back/ down
Inversion
foot, sole medial
Eversion
foot, sole lateral
Dorsiflexion
toes up
Plantar Flexion
toes down, ballerina
Elevation
raise body, shrug
Depression
move down
Protraction
anterior movement in transverse plane
Retraction
posterior movement in transverse plane
Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following statements is true about this fluid?
it contains hyaluronic acid
When one is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane, it is called:
abduction
Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are
amphiarthroses
On the basis of structural classification, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?
syndesmosis
The following characteristics define what type of joint: presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments?
hinge joint
An immovable joint found only between skull bones is called a
suture
Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of:
hyperextension
Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to:
provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints.
Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints...this is true about what movements
gliding
Fibrous joints are classified as:
sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses.
A joint that is known as a suture is found:
in the skull only
Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Name the bones of the hand that articulate to form a saddle joint:
the trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal.
The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to:
the feet
All synovial joints are .... and ....
free and moveable
Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction develops are called:
bursae
act as friction-reducing structures.....
tendon sheaths
With .... exception, all bones of the body articulate with at least one other.
one
The ligaments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly are called:
cruciate ligaments
If a patient was suffering from bursitis, this condition would be designated as inflammation of a
small sac containing fluid
Menisci refers to
semilunar cartilage pads
An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is:
the radius and ulna along it's length
A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint.
gomphosis
The shoulder joint is a good example of a ________ synovial joint.
multiaxial
In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with:
hyaline cartilage
________ are cartilaginous joints.
synchondroses
cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones
synchondroses
The only movement allowed in a pivot joint is:
uniaxial rotation
When a ballerina points the toes, it is known as:
plantar flexion
permit essentially no movement
synarthrotic joints
The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the _______ joint
plane
Gouty arthritis is a painful condition caused by:
excessive blood levels of uric acid deposited as crystals in the soft tissue joints.
Multiaxial joints of the body include:
the hip and shoulder
Which ligament of the knee initiates the knee-jerk reflex when tapped?
the patellar ligament
A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that permits a slight degree of movement is a:
symphysis