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Q2 APUSH key terms and people Ch. ELEVEN
Terms in this set (56)
Judiciary Act of 1801
Passed by the departing Federalist Congress, it created sixteen new federal judgeships, ensuring a Federalist hold on the judiciary.
Federal justices appointed by John Adams during the last days of his presidency. Their positions were revoked when the newly elected Republican Congress repealed the Judiciary Act.
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme Court case that established the principle of "judicial review"-the idea that the Supreme Court had the final authority to determine constitutionality.
Macon's Bill No. 2
Aimed at resuming peaceful trade with Britain and France, the act stipulated that if either Britain or France repealed its trade restrictions, the United States would reinstate the embargo against the nonrepealing nation. When Napoleon offered to lift his restrictions on British ports, the United States was forced to declare an embargo on Britain, thereby pushing the two nations closer toward war.
Democratic-Republican congressmen who pressed James Madison to declare war on Britain. Largely drawn from the South and West, the war hawks resented British constraints on American trade and accused the British of supporting Indian attacks against American settlements on the frontier.
Author of the Declaration of Independence, ambassador to France, and second president of the United States. As one of the leaders of the Democratic-Republican party, advocated a limited role for the national government, particularly in the area of finance. As president, however, oversaw significant expansion of the federal state through the purchase of Louisiana Territory and the enactment of the Embargo of 1807.
Chief justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 until his death in 1835, he strengthened the role of the courts by establishing the principle of judicial review. During his tenure, the Court also expanded the powers of the federal government through a series of decisions that established federal supremacy over the states.
French emperor who waged a series of wars against his neighbors on the European continent from 1800 until his final defeat at Waterloo in 1815. In 1803, having failed to put down the Haitian rebellion, he relinquished France's remaining North American possessions by selling Louisiana Territory to the United States.
Robert R. Livingston
American statesman who served as minister to France from 1801 to 1804 and negotiated the purchase of Louisiana Territory in 1803.
Haitian revolutionary who led a successful slave uprising and helped establish an independent Haiti in 1797. In 1802, he was captured by a French force sent to reestablish control over the island. Shipped back to France and imprisoned for treason, he succumbed to pneumonia in 1803.
American soldier and explorer who led the famous expedition through Louisiana Territory from 1804 to 1806. After briefly serving as governor of upper Louisiana Territory, he died in an apparent suicide in 1809.
Explorer who joined Meriwether Lewis in leading the expedition of Louisiana Territory from 1804 to 1806. After the expedition, he played a key role in shaping America's Indian policy, seeking to strengthen American relations with the Indians through trade.
Revolutionary War soldier and vice president under Thomas Jefferson, he is perhaps most famous for fatally wounding Alexander Hamilton in a duel in 1804. In 1806, he led a failed plot to separate the trans-Mississippi West from the United States. Narrowly acquitted of treason, he fled to France, where he tried to convince Napoleon to ally with Britain against the United States.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Organized the federal legal system, establishing the Supreme Court, federal district and circuit courts, and the office of the attorney general.
Accomplished Shawnee warrior, he sought to establish a confederacy of Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. He opposed individual tribes selling land to the United States, arguing that the land belonged to all the native peoples. After 1811, he allied with the British, fighting fiercely against the United States until his death in 1813.
Battle of Tippecanoe,
Resulted in the defeat of Shawnee chief Tenskwatawa, "the Prophet," at the hands of William Henry Harrison in the Indiana wilderness. After the battle, the Prophet's brother, Tecumseh, forged an alliance with the British against the United States.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Suit over whether New York State could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that Congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce.
American naval officer who secured a decisive victory over a British fleet at the Battle of Plattsburg, halting the British invasion of New York.
President Adams named him a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia. Marbury sued James Madison when he learned his appointment would never take place.
Zebulon M. Pike
A pioneer who explored the Louisiana territory between 1805 - 1807. He explored Colorado, New Mexico, & Mississippi. He was a leader of the new land. He has set up the portal to allow ppeople to migrate toward west.
is like the "spoils system." When an elected official fills appointed positions with friends that helped him/her get elected, it is considered patronage. Thomas Jefferson did not change many of the appointed positions in the government when he was elected in 1801.
In 1803 Thomas Jefferson purchased 828,000 square miles of land for 15 million dollars from Napoleon the leader of France. The land mass streched from the Gulf of Mexico all the to Rocky Mountains and Canada. The purchase of this land sprouted national pride and ensured expansion.
Formaly reopened trade with all nations except England and Franceon March 1, 1809. A replacement of the Embargo Act. Made by the Repeblican Congress in an attempt to make England and France stop harassing the American ships and recognize the neutrality of America.
forbidding all exportation of goods from the United States. Britian and France had been continuously harassing the U.S. and siezing U.S. ship's and men. The U.S. was not prepared to fight in a war, so Pres. Jefferson hoped to weaken Brittian and France by stopping trade. it ended up hurting our economy more than theirs. It was repealed in 1809. it helped to revive the Federalists. It caused New England's industry to grow. It eventually led to the War of 1812.
Jefferson believed in this idea that if the embargo act worked it would give rights of neutral nations and paint a new way of conducting foreign affairs
The author of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, he was also the father of the Federalist party and the fourth President of the United States. He was President during the war of 1812 and was also Vice-President under Jefferson. He was a great statesman but was not a strong president.
The twin brother of the Shawnee Indian Tecumseh Banded together many of the tribes along the Mississippi River in 1811 to stop the white settlers from pushing farther into the western wilderness. The groups of braves forswore firewater in order to be fit for the last-ditch battle with the whites. The war hawk Congress sent General William H. Harrison to repel a surprise attack at Tippecanoe and burn the settlement. The war hawks began to feel that the only way to remove Indian menace was to wipe out their Canadian base
William H. Harrison
General-Indian fighter-president--hero of Battle of Tippecanoe&Battle fo the Thames in the War of 1812--major asset to America by keeping Indians at bay, redcoats from massacre's,and gaining/clearing land in West
Battle of Thames
was fought at the River Thames in Canada on October 13, 1813. In this battle, the redcoats were overtaken by General Harrison and his army after they had withdrawn from Fort Malden. A Shawnee chief, Tecumseh, fought for the British and lost his life. With his death came the death of his confederacy.
The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. He is the first American internationally recognized in Writing. Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Rip Van Whinkle. - American folklore, local legends
Second Bank of the United States
In 1816, during the administration of President James Madison, the Democratic-Republicans reversed course and supported its creation. It was patterned after the first and quickly established branches throughout the Union.
Bonus Bill of 1817
A bill introduced by John C. Calhoun to provide a federal highway linking The East and South to The West using the earnings Bonus from the Second Bank of the United States
Treaty of 1818
A treaty signed in 1818 between the United States and the United Kingdom. It resolved standing boundary issues between the two nations, and allowed for joint occupation and settlement of the Oregon Country.
claimed that the slowing of westward expansion was just another attempt of the east to protect their power. He hinted that the south and west should unite against the "northern tyranny." Nullification
The group of unofficial political allies to president Jackson. Gave Jackson advice, just like the Presidential Cabinet.
the term for the Jacksonian change from a system based on property qualifications to one based on manhood suffrage
Revolution of 1828
the nickname given to the election of 1828 because of its great shift toward the common man
rotation in office
the New Democracy supported this practice of letting as many citizens as possible feed at the public trough for at least a short time
South Carolina Exposition
the pamphlet of 1828 that carefully outlined the doctrine of nullification
the alleged deal made between Clay and Adams in the election of 1824
Considered father of American industrial revolution because he brought British textile technology, rather illegally, to America
Samuel F. B. Morse
Contributor to invention of one-wire telegraph, co-inventor of morse code
Inventor of the cotton gin, interchangeable parts, and the milling machine
change from severe Puritanism of the past. they believed that God existed in only one person and not in the orthodox trinity. They also denied the divinity of Jesus, stressed the essential goodness of human nature, proclaimed their belief in free will and the possibility of salvation through good works, and pictured God as a loving father rather than a stern creator. the movement began in New England at the end of the eighteenth century and was embraced by many of the leading "thinkers" or intellectuals of the day.
aka Adventists, predicted Christ's return on October 22, 1844, When this prophesy failed to materialize, the movement lost credibility
Prior to the Mexican American war president Polk sent him to Mexico to negotiate an agreement between that the Rio Grande River would be the southern border of Texas. Instructed to offer 30 million for California. Mexico denied his mission and war was declared on May 13 1846.
treaty resolving border issues between US and British North American Colonies. Particularly a dispute over Maine-New Brunswick resolved old border confusions. Signed by Daniel Webster and Baron Ashburton.
American diplomat, politician, and railroad promoter who negotiated the Gadsden Purchase.
refers to a group of pro-slavery, extremist. Often politicians, Fire Easters were from the South and urged the separation of southern states into a new nation. This later became known as the Confederate States of America.
Nominated for presidency in 1860 by the Constitutional Union Party, which formed a split in the Union. He was a compromise candidate.
American Party or Know-Nothing Party
a former political party active in the 1850s to keep power out of the hands of immigrants and Roman Catholics (called nativists)
When John Brown (abolitionist) and followers murdered 5 pro-slavery settlers in Kansas then mutilated their bodies to scare other slave supporters and to keep slavery supporters from moving into Kansas.
He was Lincoln's vice president; & President after the assassination. He was a Jacksonian Democrat; from Tennessee but after the seccesion from the Union he stayed in the Senate because his loyalty lay with the Union; a month after Lincoln's death he began his Reconstruction vision which offered amnesty to Southerners who promised to keep their allegiance to the Constitution, however the Southern elite were exempt from this because he blamed them for seccession
William H. Seward
the anti-slaveryite advocate of God's moral law in the Senate. He was the wiry and husky-throated freshman senator from New York who opposed concession in 1850.
As Secretary of War, he acted as a spy for the radicals in cabinet meetings. President Johnson asked him to resign in 1867. The dismissal of Stanton let to the impeachment of Johnson because Johnson had broken the Tenure of Office Law.